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Library | Item Barcode | Call Number | Material Type | Status |
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Searching... | 30000004381087 | TP155.5 D37 2001 | Open Access Book | Searching... |

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### Summary

### Summary

Combining comprehensive theoretical and empirical perspectives into a clearly organized text, Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics, Second Editiondiscusses the principal behavioral concepts of fluids and the basic methods of analysis for resolving a variety of engineering situations. Drawing on the author's 35 years of experience, the book covers real-world engineering problems and concerns of performance, equipment operation, sizing, and selection from the viewpoint of a process engineer. It supplies over 1500 end-of-chapter problems, examples, equations, literature references, illustrations, and tables to reinforce essential concepts.

### Author Notes

Ron Darby is a Professor of Chemical Engineering, Texas AandM University, College Station

### Reviews 1

### Choice Review

This updated third edition (CH, Oct'01, 39-0959) of Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics is an excellent textbook in its methodical style and format. The book is particularly suitable for undergraduate students. It may also be adopted appropriately by other disciplines with interest in porous media and two-phase flows. The book consists of 16 chapters, with foundational sections for a first semester course; however, it can also be utilized in a two-semester sequence. The book contains a plethora of topics that include non-Newtonian fluids, compressible choked flows, and cyclone separation. The authors are commended for articulating theories with clear mathematical formulations. The style is quite appealing pedagogically, as it provides balanced examples between SI units and British gravitational units. Each chapter ends with a summary of key points covered and well-thought-out practice problems to build students' skills in solving problems and learning the principles of chemical engineering fluid mechanics. This book is quite effective--it is even practical as a self-study guide. Summing Up: Highly recommended. Upper-division undergraduates. --Raymond N. Laoulache, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth

### Table of Contents

Preface | p. iii |

Unit Conversion Factors | p. xvi |

1. Basic Concepts | p. 1 |

I. Fundamentals | p. 1 |

A. Basic Laws | p. 1 |

B. Experience | p. 2 |

II. Objective | p. 2 |

III. Phenomenological Rate or Transport Laws | p. 3 |

A. Fourier's Law of Heat Conduction | p. 4 |

B. Fick's Law of Diffusion | p. 5 |

C. Ohm's Law of Electrical Conductivity | p. 5 |

D. Newton's Law of Viscosity | p. 6 |

IV. The "System" | p. 9 |

V. Turbulent Macroscopic (Convective) Transport Models | p. 10 |

Problems | p. 11 |

Notation | p. 13 |

2. Dimensional Analysis and Scale-up | p. 15 |

I. Introduction | p. 15 |

II. Units and Dimensions | p. 16 |

A. Dimensions | p. 16 |

B. Units | p. 18 |

C. Conversion Factors | p. 19 |

III. Conservation of Dimensions | p. 20 |

A. Numerical Values | p. 21 |

B. Consistent Units | p. 22 |

IV. Dimensional Analysis | p. 22 |

A. Pipeline Analysis | p. 25 |

B. Uniqueness | p. 28 |

C. Dimensionless Variables | p. 28 |

D. Problem Solution | p. 29 |

E. Alternative Groups | p. 29 |

V. Scale-Up | p. 30 |

VI. Dimensionless Groups in Fluid Mechanics | p. 35 |

VII. Accuracy and Precision | p. 35 |

Problems | p. 40 |

Notation | p. 52 |

3. Fluid Properties in Perspective | p. 55 |

I. Classification of Materials and Fluid Properties | p. 55 |

II. Determination of Fluid Viscous (Rheological) Properties | p. 59 |

A. Cup-and-Bob (Couette) Viscometer | p. 60 |

B. Tube Flow (Poiseuille) Viscometer | p. 63 |

III. Types of Observed Fluid Behavior | p. 64 |

A. Newtonian Fluid | p. 65 |

B. Bingham Plastic Model | p. 65 |

C. Power Law Model | p. 66 |

D. Structural Viscosity Models | p. 67 |

IV. Temperature Dependence of Viscosity | p. 71 |

A. Liquids | p. 71 |

B. Gases | p. 72 |

V. Density | p. 72 |

Problems | p. 73 |

Notation | p. 83 |

References | p. 84 |

4. Fluid Statics | p. 85 |

I. Stress and Pressure | p. 85 |

II. The Basic Equation of Fluid Statics | p. 86 |

A. Constant Density Fluids | p. 88 |

B. Ideal Gas--Isothermal | p. 89 |

C. Ideal Gas--Isentropic | p. 90 |

D. The Standard Atmosphere | p. 90 |

III. Moving Systems | p. 91 |

A. Vertical Acceleration | p. 91 |

B. Horizontally Accelerating Free Surface | p. 92 |

C. Rotating Fluid | p. 93 |

IV. Buoyancy | p. 94 |

V. Static Forces on Solid Boundaries | p. 94 |

Problems | p. 96 |

Notation | p. 104 |

5. Conservation Principles | p. 105 |

I. The System | p. 105 |

II. Conservation of Mass | p. 106 |

A. Macroscopic Balance | p. 106 |

B. Microscopic Balance | p. 107 |

III. Conservation of Energy | p. 108 |

A. Internal Energy | p. 110 |

B. Enthalpy | p. 112 |

IV. Irreversible Effects | p. 113 |

A. Kinetic Energy Correction | p. 116 |

V. Conservation of Momentum | p. 120 |

A. One-Dimensional Flow in a Tube | p. 121 |

B. The Loss Coefficient | p. 123 |

C. Conservation of Angular Momentum | p. 127 |

D. Moving Boundary Systems and Relative Motion | p. 128 |

E. Microscopic Momentum Balance | p. 130 |

Problems | p. 134 |

Notation | p. 146 |

6. Pipe Flow | p. 149 |

I. Flow Regimes | p. 149 |

II. General Relations for Pipe Flows | p. 151 |

A. Energy Balance | p. 151 |

B. Momentum Balance | p. 152 |

C. Continuity | p. 153 |

D. Energy Dissipation | p. 153 |

III. Newtonian Fluids | p. 154 |

A. Laminar Flow | p. 154 |

B. Turbulent Flow | p. 155 |

C. All Flow Regimes | p. 164 |

IV. Power Law Fluids | p. 164 |

A. Laminar Flow | p. 165 |

B. Turbulent Flow | p. 166 |

C. All Flow Regimes | p. 166 |

V. Bingham Plastics | p. 167 |

A. Laminar Flow | p. 168 |

B. Turbulent Flow | p. 169 |

C. All Reynolds Numbers | p. 169 |

VI. Pipe Flow Problems | p. 169 |

A. Unknown Driving Force | p. 170 |

B. Unknown Flow Rate | p. 172 |

C. Unknown Diameter | p. 174 |

D. Use of Tables | p. 177 |

VII. Tube Flow (Poiseuille) Viscometer | p. 177 |

VIII. Turbulent Drag Reduction | p. 178 |

Problems | p. 184 |

Notation | p. 192 |

References | p. 193 |

7. Internal Flow Applications | p. 195 |

I. Noncircular Conduits | p. 195 |

A. Laminar Flows | p. 195 |

B. Turbulent Flows | p. 198 |

II. Most Economical Diameter | p. 200 |

A. Newtonian Fluids | p. 203 |

B. Non-Newtonian Fluids | p. 205 |

III. Friction Loss in Valves and Fittings | p. 206 |

A. Loss Coefficient | p. 207 |

B. Equivalent L/D Method | p. 207 |

C. Crane Method | p. 208 |

D. 2-K (Hooper) Method | p. 209 |

E. 3-K (Darby) Method | p. 209 |

IV. Non-Newtonian Fluids | p. 214 |

V. Pipe Flow Problems with Fittings | p. 215 |

A. Unknown Driving Force | p. 216 |

B. Unknown Flow Rate | p. 217 |

C. Unknown Diameter | p. 218 |

VI. Slack Flow | p. 221 |

VII. Pipe Networks | p. 225 |

Problems | p. 228 |

Notation | p. 237 |

References | p. 238 |

8. Pumps and Compressors | p. 239 |

I. Pumps | p. 239 |

A. Positive Displacement Pumps | p. 239 |

B. Centrifugal Pumps | p. 240 |

II. Pump Characteristics | p. 241 |

III. Pumping Requirements and Pump Selection | p. 243 |

A. Required Head | p. 244 |

B. Composite Curves | p. 245 |

IV. Cavitation and Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) | p. 247 |

A. Vapor Lock and Cavitation | p. 247 |

B. NPSH | p. 248 |

C. Specific Speed | p. 249 |

D. Suction Specific Speed | p. 250 |

V. Compressors | p. 252 |

A. Isothermal Compression | p. 254 |

B. Isentropic Compression | p. 254 |

C. Staged Operation | p. 255 |

D. Efficiency | p. 256 |

Problems | p. 256 |

Notation | p. 265 |

References | p. 266 |

9. Compressible Flows | p. 267 |

I. Gas Properties | p. 267 |

A. Ideal Gas | p. 267 |

B. The Speed of Sound | p. 268 |

II. Pipe Flow | p. 270 |

A. Isothermal Flow | p. 271 |

B. Adiabatic Flow | p. 273 |

C. Choked Flow | p. 273 |

D. The Expansion Factor | p. 275 |

E. Ideal Adiabatic Flow | p. 277 |

III. Generalized Expressions | p. 279 |

A. Governing Equations | p. 279 |

B. Applications | p. 281 |

C. Solution of High-Speed Gas Problems | p. 283 |

Problems | p. 286 |

Notation | p. 290 |

References | p. 291 |

10. Flow Measurement and Control | p. 293 |

I. Scope | p. 293 |

II. The Pitot Tube | p. 293 |

III. The Venturi and Nozzle | p. 295 |

IV. The Orifice Meter | p. 304 |

A. Incompressible Flow | p. 305 |

B. Compressible Flow | p. 306 |

V. Loss Coefficient | p. 308 |

VI. Orifice Problems | p. 310 |

A. Unknown Pressure Drop | p. 311 |

B. Unknown Flow Rate | p. 311 |

C. Unknown Diameter | p. 312 |

VII. Control Valves | p. 312 |

A. Valve Characteristics | p. 313 |

B. Valve Sizing Relations | p. 314 |

C. Compressible Fluids | p. 327 |

D. Viscosity Correction | p. 330 |

Problems | p. 333 |

Notation | p. 338 |

References | p. 339 |

11. External Flows | p. 341 |

I. Drag Coefficient | p. 341 |

A. Stokes Flow | p. 342 |

B. Form Drag | p. 343 |

C. All Reynolds Numbers | p. 343 |

D. Cylinder Drag | p. 344 |

E. Boundary Layer Effects | p. 345 |

II. Falling Particles | p. 347 |

A. Unknown Velocity | p. 348 |

B. Unknown Diameter | p. 349 |

C. Unknown Viscosity | p. 349 |

III. Correction Factors | p. 350 |

A. Wall Effects | p. 350 |

B. Drops and Bubbles | p. 351 |

IV. Non-Newtonian Fluids | p. 352 |

A. Power Law Fluids | p. 352 |

B. Wall Effects | p. 357 |

C. Carreau Fluids | p. 358 |

D. Bingham Plastics | p. 358 |

Problems | p. 361 |

Notation | p. 363 |

References | p. 364 |

12. Fluid-Solid Separations by Free Settling | p. 365 |

I. Fluid-Solid Separations | p. 365 |

II. Gravity Settling | p. 366 |

III. Centrifugal Separation | p. 367 |

A. Fluid-Solid Separation | p. 367 |

B. Separation of Immiscible Liquids | p. 371 |

IV. Cyclone Separations | p. 375 |

A. General Characteristics | p. 375 |

B. Aerocyclones | p. 376 |

C. Hydrocyclones | p. 382 |

Problems | p. 385 |

Notation | p. 389 |

References | p. 390 |

13. Flow in Porous Media | p. 391 |

I. Description of Porous Media | p. 391 |

A. Hydraulic Diameter | p. 392 |

B. Porous Medium Friction Factor | p. 393 |

C. Porous Medium Reynolds Number | p. 394 |

II. Friction Loss in Porous Media | p. 394 |

A. Laminar Flow | p. 394 |

B. Turbulent Flow | p. 395 |

C. All Reynolds Numbers | p. 395 |

III. Permeability | p. 395 |

IV. Multidimensional Flow | p. 396 |

V. Packed Columns | p. 398 |

VI. Filtration | p. 401 |

A. Governing Equations | p. 401 |

B. Constant Pressure Operation | p. 405 |

C. Constant Flow Operation | p. 406 |

D. Cycle Time | p. 406 |

E. Plate-and-Frame Filters | p. 407 |

F. Rotary Drum Filter | p. 408 |

G. Compressible Cake | p. 408 |

Problems | p. 409 |

Notation | p. 417 |

References | p. 418 |

14. Fluidization and Sedimentation | p. 419 |

I. Fluidization | p. 419 |

A. Governing Equations | p. 420 |

B. Minimum Bed Voidage | p. 421 |

C. Nonspherical Particles | p. 421 |

II. Sedimentation | p. 423 |

A. Hindered Settling | p. 423 |

B. Fine Particles | p. 425 |

C. Coarse Particles | p. 428 |

D. All Flow Regimes | p. 428 |

III. Generalized Sedimentation/Fluidization | p. 430 |

IV. Thickening | p. 430 |

Problems | p. 436 |

Notation | p. 441 |

References | p. 442 |

15. Two-Phase Flow | p. 443 |

I. Scope | p. 443 |

II. Definitions | p. 444 |

III. Fluid-Solid Two-Phase Pipe Flows | p. 447 |

A. Pseudohomogeneous Flows | p. 447 |

B. Heterogeneous Liquid-Solid Flows | p. 449 |

C. Pneumatic Solids Transport | p. 454 |

IV. Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Pipe Flow | p. 459 |

A. Flow Regimes | p. 459 |

Problems | p. 474 |

Notation | p. 475 |

References | p. 477 |

Appendixes | |

A. Viscosities and Other Properties of Gases and Liquids | p. 479 |

B. Generalized Viscosity Plot | p. 499 |

C. Properties of Gases | p. 501 |

D. Pressure-Enthalpy Diagrams for Various Compounds | p. 505 |

E. Microscopic Conservation Equations in Rectangular, Cylindrical, and Spherical Coordinates | p. 513 |

F. Standard Steel Pipe Dimensions and Capacities | p. 519 |

G. Flow of Water/Air Through Schedule 40 Pipe | p. 525 |

H. Typical Pump Head Capacity Range Charts | p. 531 |

I. Fanno Line Tables for Adiabatic Flow of Air in a Constant Area Duct | p. 543 |

Index | p. 553 |