Cover image for Speech coding algorithms : foundation and evolution of standardized coders
Title:
Speech coding algorithms : foundation and evolution of standardized coders
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Haboken, NJ : Wiley, 2003
Physical Description:
xxiv, 558 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
ISBN:
9780471373124

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30000010177949 TK7882.S65 C488 2003 Open Access Book
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Summary

Summary

Speech coding is a highly mature branch of signal processingdeployed in products such as cellular phones, communicationdevices, and more recently, voice over internet protocol This book collects many of the techniques used in speech codingand presents them in an accessible fashion Emphasizes the foundation and evolution of standardized speechcoders, covering standards from 1984 to the present The theory behind the applications is thoroughly analyzed andproved


Author Notes

Wai C. Chu is currently at DoCoMo USA Labs (San Jose, California), he is involved with R&D activities in speech/audio coding, digital signal processing, and multimedia applications


Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Acronymsp. xix
Notationp. xxiii
1 Introductionp. 1
1.1 Overview of Speech Codingp. 2
1.2 Classification of Speech Codersp. 8
1.3 Speech Production and Modelingp. 11
1.4 Some Properties of the Human Auditory Systemp. 18
1.5 Speech Coding Standardsp. 22
1.6 About Algorithmsp. 26
1.7 Summary and Referencesp. 31
2 Signal Processing Techniquesp. 33
2.1 Pitch Period Estimationp. 33
2.2 All-Pole and All-Zero Filtersp. 45
2.3 Convolutionp. 52
2.4 Summary and Referencesp. 57
Exercisesp. 57
3 Stochastic Processes and Modelsp. 61
3.1 Power Spectral Densityp. 62
3.2 Periodogramp. 67
3.3 Autoregressive Modelp. 69
3.4 Autocorrelation Estimationp. 73
3.5 Other Signal Modelsp. 85
3.6 Summary and Referencesp. 86
Exercisesp. 87
4 Linear Predictionp. 91
4.1 The Problem of Linear Predictionp. 92
4.2 Linear Prediction Analysis of Nonstationary Signalsp. 96
4.3 Examples of Linear Prediction Analysis of Speechp. 101
4.4 The Levinson-Durbin Algorithmp. 107
4.5 The Leroux-Gueguen Algorithmp. 114
4.6 Long-Term Linear Predictionp. 120
4.7 Synthesis Filtersp. 127
4.8 Practical Implementationp. 131
4.9 Moving Average Predictionp. 137
4.10 Summary and Referencesp. 138
Exercisesp. 139
5 Scalar Quantizationp. 143
5.1 Introductionp. 143
5.2 Uniform Quantizerp. 147
5.3 Optimal Quantizerp. 149
5.4 Quantizer Design Algorithmsp. 151
5.5 Algorithmic Implementationp. 155
5.6 Summary and Referencesp. 158
Exercisesp. 158
6 Pulse Code Modulation and its Variantsp. 161
6.1 Uniform Quantizationp. 161
6.2 Nonuniform Quantizationp. 166
6.3 Differential Pulse Code Modulationp. 172
6.4 Adaptive Schemesp. 175
6.5 Summary and Referencesp. 180
Exercisesp. 181
7 Vector Quantizationp. 184
7.1 Introductionp. 185
7.2 Optimal Quantizerp. 188
7.3 Quantizer Design Algorithmsp. 189
7.4 Multistage VQp. 194
7.5 Predictive VQp. 216
7.6 Other Structured Schemesp. 219
7.7 Summary and Referencesp. 221
Exercisesp. 222
8 Scalar Quantization of Linear Prediction Coefficientp. 227
8.1 Spectral Distortionp. 227
8.2 Quantization Based on Reflection Coefficient and Log Area Ratiop. 232
8.3 Line Spectral Frequencyp. 239
8.4 Quantization Based on Line Spectral Frequencyp. 252
8.5 Interpolation of LPCp. 256
8.6 Summary and Referencesp. 258
Exercisesp. 260
9 Linear Prediction Codingp. 263
9.1 Speech Production Modelp. 264
9.2 Structure of the Algorithmp. 268
9.3 Voicing Detectorp. 271
9.4 The FS1015 LPC Coderp. 275
9.5 Limitations of the LPC Modelp. 277
9.6 Summary and Referencesp. 280
Exercisesp. 281
10 Regular-Pulse Excitation Codersp. 285
10.1 Multipulse Excitation Modelp. 286
10.2 Regular-Pulse-Excited-Long-Term Predictionp. 289
10.3 Summary and Referencesp. 295
Exercisesp. 296
11 Code-Excited Linear Predictionp. 299
11.1 The CELP Speech Production Modelp. 300
11.2 The Principle of Analysis-by-Synthesisp. 301
11.3 Encoding and Decodingp. 302
11.4 Excitation Codebook Searchp. 308
11.5 Postfilterp. 317
11.6 Summary and Referencesp. 325
Exercisesp. 326
12 The Federal Standard Version of Celpp. 330
12.1 Improving the Long-Term Predictorp. 331
12.2 The Concept of the Adaptive Codebookp. 333
12.3 Incorporation of the Adaptive Codebook to the CELP Frameworkp. 336
12.4 Stochastic Codebook Structurep. 338
12.5 Adaptive Codebook Searchp. 341
12.6 Stochastic Codebook Searchp. 344
12.7 Encoder and Decoderp. 346
12.8 Summary and Referencesp. 349
Exercisesp. 350
13 Vector Sum Excited Linear Predictionp. 353
13.1 The Core Encoding Structurep. 354
13.2 Search Strategies for Excitation Codebooksp. 356
13.3 Excitation Codebook Searchesp. 357
13.4 Gain Related Proceduresp. 362
13.5 Encoder and Decoderp. 366
13.6 Summary and Referencesp. 368
Exercisesp. 369
14 Low-Delay Celpp. 372
14.1 Strategies to Achieve Low Delayp. 373
14.2 Basic Operational Principlesp. 375
14.3 Linear Prediction Analysisp. 377
14.4 Excitation Codebook Searchp. 380
14.5 Backward Gain Adaptationp. 385
14.6 Encoder and Decoderp. 389
14.7 Codebook Trainingp. 391
14.8 Summary and Referencesp. 393
Exercisesp. 394
15 Vector Quantization of Linear Prediction Coefficientp. 396
15.1 Correlation Among the LSFsp. 396
15.2 Split VQp. 399
15.3 Multistage VQp. 403
15.4 Predictive VQp. 407
15.5 Summary and Referencesp. 418
Exercisesp. 419
16 Algebraic Celpp. 423
16.1 Algebraic Codebook Structurep. 424
16.2 Adaptive Codebookp. 425
16.3 Encoding and Decodingp. 433
16.4 Algebraic Codebook Searchp. 437
16.5 Gain Quantization Using Conjugate VQp. 443
16.6 Other ACELP Standardsp. 446
16.7 Summary and Referencesp. 451
Exercisesp. 451
17 Mixed Excitation Linear Predictionp. 454
17.1 The MELP Speech Production Modelp. 455
17.2 Fourier Magnitudesp. 456
17.3 Shaping Filtersp. 464
17.4 Pitch Period and Voicing Strength Estimationp. 466
17.5 Encoder Operationsp. 474
17.6 Decoder Operationsp. 477
17.7 Summary and Referencesp. 481
Exercisesp. 482
18 Source-Controlled Variable Bit-Rate Celpp. 486
18.1 Adaptive Rate Decisionp. 487
18.2 LP Analysis and LSF-Related Operationsp. 494
18.3 Decoding and Encodingp. 496
18.4 Summary and Referencesp. 498
Exercisesp. 499
19 Speech Quality Assessmentp. 501
19.1 The Scope of Quality and Measuring Conditionsp. 501
19.2 Objective Quality Measurements for Waveform Codersp. 502
19.3 Subjective Quality Measuresp. 504
19.4 Improvements on Objective Quality Measuresp. 505
Appendix A Minimum-Phase Property of the Forward Prediction-Error Filterp. 507
Appendix B Some Properties of Line Spectral Frequencyp. 514
Appendix C Research Directions in Speech Codingp. 518
Appendix D Linear Combiner for Pattern Classificationp. 522
Appendix E Celp: Optimal Long-Term Predictor to Minimize the Weighted Differencep. 531
Appendix F Review of Linear Algebra: Orthogonality, Basis, Linear Independence, and the Gram-Schmidt Algorithmp. 537
Bibliographyp. 542
Indexp. 553