Cover image for Patterns of lexis in text
Patterns of lexis in text
Personal Author:
Describing English Language
Publication Information:
Oxford : Oxford University Pr, 1991


Item Barcode
Call Number
Material Type
30000001397094 P302.2 H63 1991 Open Access Book
30000001397136 P302.2 H63 1991 Open Access Book

On Order



Passages of authentic text are analysed to demonstrate the operations of patterns of lexis across sentence boundaries and over considerable distances within and between texts. These insights are related to a comprehensive theory of language, in which 'lexis' and 'text' are shown to beimportant levels of language organization. Implications for the teaching of reading and writing are also discussed.First Prize English Speaking Union's Duke of Edinburgh Book Competition

Table of Contents

Part 1 Introduction: questions that need answering
Chapter 1 Questions about cohesion
1.1 The aim of this book
1.2 The nature of cohesion
1.3 Questions concerning the place of cohesion
Question 1 cohesion and coherence
Question 2 cohesion and sentence relationships
Question 3 cohesion and text organization
1.4 Work relevant to the questions
Hasan (1984)
Winter (1974, 1979)
Phillips (1985)
1.5 A way forward
Chapter 2 A metaphor for text organization
2.1 The aim of this chapter
2.2 Sentence as a metaphor for text
2.3 An alternative metaphor
2.4 A simple example
The repetition links: sentence 1
The repetition links: sentence 2
The repetition links: sentence 3
The repetition links: sentence 4
2.5 A representation of the repetition patterning
2.6 Unwanted cohesion
2.7 Interpretation of the patterning: central and marginal sentences
2.8 Interpretation of the patterning: common ground between sentences
2.9 Conclusions
Part 2 Answers from text analysis
Chapter 3 Types of repetition
3.1 The aim of this chapter
3.2 Repetition as links
3.3 Simple lexical repetition
3.4 Complex lexical repetition
3.5 Text-forming versus ''chance'' lexical repetition
3.6 Simple paraphrase
3.7 Complex paraphrase and the link triangle
3.8 Superordinate, hyponymic, and co-reference repetition
3.9 Other ways of repeating
Personal pronouns
Demonstrative pronouns and modifiers
Other substitution links
3.10 A last look at the ''collection of texts'' metaphor
Chapter 4 Patterns of repetition in non-narrative text
4.1 The aim of this chapter
4.2 The data
4.3 Identification of repetition links
4.4 Construction of a repetition matrix
4.5 Creation of a net of bonds
4.6 An extension to the data
4.7 Conclusions
Chapter 5 The significance of repetition nets
5.1 The aim of this chapter
5.2 The removal of certain features of cohesion
5.3 The net as record of bonding
5.4 Marginal sentences
Sentences 5, 9, and 10
Sentence 18
Sentence 27
Sentences 30 and 31
Sentence 13
Abridgement: procedure 1 (marginal sentences)
5.5 Central sentences
Abridgement: procedure 2 (central sentences)
5.6 Topic opening and topic closing
Clear topic-opening sentences
Clear topic-closing sentences
Other topic openings and closings
5.7 Conclusions
Chapter 6 Properties of the bonds of the nets
6.1 The aim of this chapter
6.2 Claims for the bonds
6.3 Testing the strong claim
Sentences 1 and 4
Sentences 1 and 7
Sentences 17 and 24
Sentences 19 and 26
Sentences 20 and 38
Sentences 21 and 23
Sentences 23 and 36
Sentences 23 and 38
Sentences 25 and 28
6.4 Testing the weak claim
Excessive repetition
The effect of voice choice
The effect of modal choice
The effect of given-new relationships
The role of context
6.5 Abridgement: procedure 3 (topic-controlling sentences)
Sentence 17: summary
Sentence 38: first summary
Sentence 38: second summary
Sentence 1: summary
6.6 Distance bonding
6.7 Bonding and reader creativity
6.8 Bonding and writer creativity
6.9 Conclusions
Chapter 7 How the links work
7.1 The aim of this chapter
7.2 How the pairs are related
7.3 Processes in the creation of parallelism
Lexical expansion
Lexical reduction
Lexical transference
Lexical substitution
Syntactic equivalence
Discoursal expansion
7.4 Exemplification of the processes of parallelism
Sentences 17 and 24
Sentences 19 and 26
Sentences 21 and 24
7.5 Conclusions
Part 3 Implications for theory and practice
Chapter 8 Implications for a theory of language
8.1 The aim of this chapter
8.2 Claims about the nature of text
8.3 Text as structure versus text as organization
8.4 Halliday''s map of language (1961)
8.5 The meaning of context in Halliday (1961)
8.6 A revision of Halliday''s map of language
8.7 The place of monologue in a map of language study
8.8 The place of lexis in a map of language study
8.9 Implications of our map of language
8.10 Further symmetries in our map of language
Reference to adjacent areas
The relationship of speech and writing
Grammar and discourse
Sentence and morpheme
Relationships across the map of language
8.11 Conclusions
Chapter 9 Implications for reading and writing
9.1 The aim of this chapter
9.2 The reader''s active role9