Cover image for Sharing a vision : systems and algorithms for collaboratively-teleoperated robotic cameras
Title:
Sharing a vision : systems and algorithms for collaboratively-teleoperated robotic cameras
Personal Author:
Series:
Springer tracts in advanced robotics ; 51
Publication Information:
Berlin : Springer, 2009
Physical Description:
xix, 186 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
ISBN:
9783540880646

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30000010194148 TJ211.3 S66 2009 Open Access Book
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Summary

Summary

By the dawn of the new millennium, robotics has undergone a major transf- mation in scope and dimensions. This expansion has been brought about by the maturity of the ?eld and the advances in its related technologies. From a largely dominant industrial focus, robotics has been rapidly expanding into the challenges of the human world. The new generation of robots is expected to safely and dependably co-habitat with humans in homes, workplaces, and c- munities, providing support in services, entertainment, education, healthcare, manufacturing, and assistance. Beyond its impact on physical robots, the body of knowledge robotics has produced is revealing a much wider rangeof applications reaching across diverse research areas and scienti?c disciplines, such as: biomechanics, haptics, n- rosciences, virtual simulation, animation, surgery, and sensor networks among others. In return, the challenges of the new emerging areas are proving an ab- dant source of stimulation and insights for the ?eld of robotics. It is indeed at the intersection of disciplines that the most striking advances happen. The goal of the series of Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics (STAR) is to bring, in a timely fashion, the latest advances and developments in robotics on thebasisoftheirsigni?canceandquality.Itisourhopethatthewiderdissemi- tion of research developments will stimulate more exchanges and collaborations among the research community and contribute to further advancement of this rapidly growing ?eld.


Table of Contents

1 Introductionp. 1
1.1 Tele-operationp. 1
1.2 Networked Telerobotsp. 2
1.3 Web Camerasp. 4
1.4 Collaborative Telerobotp. 5
1.4.1 What Is a Collaborative Telerobot?p. 5
1.4.2 History of Collaborative Telerobotsp. 6
1.4.3 Characteristics of CT Systemsp. 8
1.5 Organization of the Bookp. 9
Part I Systems
2 The Co-Opticon System: Interface, System Architecture, and Implementation of a Collaboratively Controlled Robotic Webcamp. 13
2.1 Introductionp. 13
2.2 The Co-Opticon Interfacep. 14
2.3 Hardwarep. 14
2.4 Softwarep. 15
2.5 Frame Selection Modelsp. 17
2.5.1 Memoryles Frame Selection Modelp. 17
2.5.2 Temporal Frame Selection Modelp. 17
2.5.3 Experimentsp. 19
2.5.4 Field Testsp. 20
2.6 Conclusionsp. 21
3 The Tele-Actor System: Collaborative Teleoperation Using Networked Spatial Dynamic Votingp. 23
3.1 Introductionp. 23
3.2 System Architecturep. 25
3.3 SDV User Interfacep. 25
3.4 Hardware and Softwarep. 29
3.4.1 Version 3.0 (July 18, 2001)p. 29
3.4.2 Version 9.0 (July 25, 2002)p. 30
3.5 Problem Definition and Algorithmsp. 33
3.5.1 Problem Definitionp. 33
3.5.2 Ensemble Consensus Regionp. 34
3.5.3 Collaboration Metricp. 34
3.6 Online Field Testsp. 36
3.7 Conclusionsp. 36
3.8 Closurep. 37
Part II Algorithms
4 Exact Frame Selection Algorithms for Agile Satellitesp. 41
4.1 Introductionp. 41
4.2 Related Workp. 43
4.3 Problem Definitionp. 44
4.3.1 Inputs and Assumptionsp. 44
4.3.2 Reward Metricp. 48
4.3.3 Properties of the CRR Reward Metricp. 50
4.3.4 Comparison with "Similarity Metrics"p. 51
4.4 Algorithmsp. 53
4.4.1 Base Vertices and Plateau Verticesp. 53
4.4.2 Algorithms for Discrete Resolutionsp. 56
4.4.3 Algorithms for Continuous Resolutionp. 57
4.5 Resultsp. 66
4.6 Conclusions and Future Workp. 69
5 Approximate and Distributed Algorithms for a Collaboratively Controlled Robotic Webcamp. 71
5.1 Introductionp. 71
5.2 Problem Definitionp. 72
5.3 Algorithmsp. 74
5.3.1 Algorithm I: Exhaustive Lattice Searchp. 74
5.3.2 Algorithm II: BnB Implementationp. 81
5.4 Experimentsp. 84
5.4.1 Numerical Experimentsp. 84
5.4.2 Field Testsp. 86
5.5 Conclusionsp. 87
6 An Approximation Algorithm for the Least Overlapping p-Frame Problem with Non-Partial Coverage for Networked Robotic Camerasp. 89
6.1 Introductionp. 89
6.2 Related Workp. 90
6.3 Problem Definitionp. 91
6.3.1 Input and Outputp. 91
6.3.2 Nomenclaturep. 91
6.3.3 Assumptionsp. 92
6.3.4 Satisfaction Metricp. 92
6.3.5 Problem Formulationp. 93
6.4 Algorithmp. 94
6.4.1 Construction of Latticep. 94
6.4.2 Virtual Non-Overlapping Conditionp. 95
6.4.3 Approximation Solution Boundp. 96
6.4.4 Lattice-Based Algorithmp. 97
6.5 Experimental Resultsp. 99
6.6 Conclusion and Future Workp. 102
7 Unsupervised Scoring for Scalable Internet-Based Collaborative Teleoperationp. 103
7.1 Introductionp. 103
7.2 Related Workp. 105
7.3 Problem Definitionp. 106
7.3.1 Inputs and Assumptionsp. 106
7.3.2 Unsupervised Scoring Metricp. 108
7.4 Distributed Algorithmp. 109
7.5 The "Tele-Twister" Applicationp. 110
7.6 Conclusion and Future Workp. 112
7.7 Closurep. 113
Part III Deployment
8 Projection Invariants for Pan-Tilt-Zoom Robotic Camerasp. 117
8.1 Introductionp. 117
8.2 Related Workp. 118
8.3 Problem Definitionp. 120
8.3.1 Assumptionsp. 120
8.3.2 Nomenclaturep. 120
8.3.3 Perspective Projection and Re-projection for a PTZ Camerap. 121
8.3.4 Definition of Projection Invariantsp. 122
8.4 Projection Invariantsp. 122
8.4.1 Projection Invariants and Re-projectionp. 122
8.4.2 Spherical Wrappingp. 124
8.4.3 Spherical Re-Projection (SRP)p. 125
8.4.4 Projection Invariants for SRPp. 126
8.5 Application: Image Alignment Problemp. 130
8.5.1 Problem Description and Existing Methodsp. 131
8.5.2 Projection Invariant-Based Image Alignment Algorithmp. 132
8.5.3 Experiments and Resultsp. 133
8.5.4 Speed Testp. 134
8.5.5 Application in Panorama Constructionp. 135
8.6 Conclusion and Future Workp. 137
9 Calibration Algorithms for Panorama-Based Camera Controlp. 139
9.1 Introductionp. 139
9.2 Related Workp. 140
9.3 Assumptions and Nomenclaturep. 142
9.4 Calibration Schemep. 143
9.4.1 Problem Definitionp. 143
9.4.2 Calibration Techniquep. 145
9.4.3 Calibration Accuracy Analysisp. 148
9.5 Experimentsp. 149
9.6 Conclusions and Future Workp. 151
10 On-Demand Sharing of a High-Resolution Panorama Video from Networked Robotic Camerasp. 153
10.1 Introductionp. 153
10.2 Related Workp. 155
10.3 System Architecturep. 156
10.3.1 Evolving Panoramap. 157
10.3.2 Understanding User Requestsp. 158
10.4 Data Representation and Algorithmsp. 159
10.4.1 Patch-Based Evolving Panorama Video Representationp. 159
10.4.2 Frame Insertion Algorithmp. 159
10.4.3 User Query Algorithmp. 160
10.5 Experiments and Resultsp. 161
10.6 Conclusion and Future Workp. 163
11 Conclusions and Future Workp. 165
11.1 Contributionsp. 165
11.1.1 Challenges Identified in CT Systemsp. 165
11.1.2 Formulation of CTRC Problems and Metricsp. 166
11.1.3 Algorithmsp. 166
11.1.4 System Development and Experimentsp. 167
11.2 Future Workp. 169
11.2.1 Big Picturep. 169
11.2.2 Extensions of Frame Selection Problemsp. 169
11.2.3 Another Viewpoint on Future Workp. 170
Referencesp. 173
Indexp. 185