Cover image for Mobile VPN : advanced services in next generation wireless systems
Mobile VPN : advanced services in next generation wireless systems
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Indianapolis, Indiana : Wiley Publishing, 2003
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30000004809657 TK5103.4885 S53 2003 Open Access Book

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Expected to serve up to 40 million mobile workers by 2004, Mobile VPNs provide professionals and consumers with secure data access to private networks while on the road An in-depth tutorial on the technology that wireless carriers will require to offer competitive IP-based services Teaches how to implement Mobile VPNs within GPRS, CDMA2000, UMTS and WLAN environments Examines technologies like IP tunneling, security, roaming, addressing, AAA brokerage, and the latest standards as applied in wireless data systems frameworks

Author Notes

ALEX SHNEYDERMAN is an independent consultant. Previously, he was Senior Product Manager at Lucent Technologies for their Springtide Wireless IP Services Switch. A frequent speaker at conferences, Shneyderman is also active in the IEEE and has authored several important white papers on wireless networks and IP services.

ALESSIO CASATI is an engineer with Lucent Technologies working on wireless packet data services, products, and protocols. Casati contributed to the standard setting in 3GPP and the IETF in the areas of mobility and QoS. He was a researcher in Italtel Central Research (Telecom Italia).

Table of Contents

Forewordp. xv
Prefacep. xvii
Part 1 Wireless Data Fundamentalsp. 1
Chapter 1 Introduction to MVPNp. 3
The Era of Pervasive Mobilityp. 5
Pervasive Mobility Driversp. 6
Increase in Productivityp. 6
Mobile Device Evolutionp. 7
Cellular Systems Advancesp. 7
Mobile Lifestyles and Workplacesp. 7
Background on VPNp. 8
MVPN Business Casep. 9
Moving to Mobile VPNp. 10
Wireless Communications with MVPNp. 10
MVPN as a Differentiation Toolp. 11
Mobile VPN Market and Stakeholdersp. 12
MVPN Service Providersp. 12
MVPN Customersp. 13
Small Businessesp. 14
Enterprisesp. 14
Institutionsp. 15
Application Service Providersp. 16
Wireless Data Standardsp. 16
Regional Standards Organizationsp. 17
3GPPp. 18
3GPP Documents and Standardization Processp. 21
3GPP2p. 22
3GPP2 Documents and Standardization Processp. 23
Internet Engineering Task Forcep. 24
IETF Documents and Standardization Processp. 25
IEEE 802 LAN/MAN Standards Committeep. 26
IEEE Documents and Standardization Processp. 29
Finding Standards Documents Onlinep. 30
Summaryp. 30
Chapter 2 Data Networking Technologiesp. 31
Tunneling and Labeling Technologiesp. 32
Layer Two Tunneling Protocolp. 33
IP in IP Tunnelingp. 36
GRE Protocolp. 37
Mobile IPp. 38
Implementing Mobile IPp. 39
GPRS Tunneling Protocolp. 42
Addressing Securityp. 46
IPSecp. 46
Public Key Infrastructurep. 50
SSL and TLSp. 53
Labeling with Multi-Protocol Label Switchingp. 54
Quality of Service and VPNp. 59
Per-Hop Behavior Typesp. 59
QoS and Tunnelsp. 60
QoS and MPLSp. 63
Authentication, Authorization, and Accountingp. 63
User Authentication and Authorizationp. 64
Accounting Data Collectionp. 65
AAA and Network Access Services: RADIUSp. 67
Authentication Methods for Network Accessp. 67
AAA and Roaming: The Network Access Identifierp. 69
AAA Evolution: DIAMETERp. 70
Network Servicesp. 71
Address Managementp. 71
DHCP Protocolp. 72
Host Namingp. 74
Domain Name Systemp. 74
Network Address Translationp. 77
Summaryp. 79
Chapter 3 Wireless Systems Overview: A Radio Interface Perspectivep. 81
Three Wireless Generationsp. 82
1G Cellular Systemsp. 85
AMPSp. 85
Nordic Mobile Telephone and Total Access Communication Systemp. 86
2G Cellular Systemsp. 87
North American TDMA (IS 136)p. 88
Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)p. 89
High-Speed Circuit-Switched Datap. 90
@cdmaOnep. 90
3G Cellular Systemsp. 92
CDMA2000p. 92
CDMA2000-1xEVp. 93
CDMA2000-3xp. 94
Universal Mobile Telecommunications Systemp. 94
UMTS Standardizationp. 95
UMTS Radio Interfacep. 96
Enchased Data Rate for Global Evolutionp. 98
EDGE Classificationp. 98
The Future of EDGEp. 100
Wireless LANp. 100
WLAN Technologyp. 101
Summaryp. 102
Chapter 4 Wireless Systems Overview: Data Services Perspectivep. 103
Circuit versus Packetp. 104
Data Services in 1G, 2G, and 3G Systemsp. 106
1G Systems Circuit Datap. 106
Circuit-Switched Data in 2G and 3G Systemsp. 107
CDMA and TDMA Circuit-Switched Datap. 107
GSM and UMTS Circuit-Switched Datap. 109
GSM/UMTS CSD Service Capabilitiesp. 110
CDMA2000 Packet Datap. 112
CDMA2000 Packet Data Architecturep. 113
Mobile Station Perspectivep. 117
Dormancyp. 117
Mobile Station Typesp. 118
CDMA2000 Mobility Levelsp. 119
CDMA2000 Mobile AAAp. 121
GSM and UMTS Packet Data: General Packet Radio Service and UMTS PS Domainp. 123
GPRS Elementsp. 124
UMTS Elementsp. 125
GPRS and UMTS PS Domain System Architecturep. 126
GPRS and UMTS PS Domain Service Capabilitiesp. 131
GPRS and UMTS PS Domain Terminalp. 131
Summaryp. 133
Part 2 MVPN and Advanced Wireless Data Servicesp. 135
Chapter 5 Mobile VPN Fundamentalsp. 137
Defining VPNp. 138
VPN Building Blocksp. 138
Access Controlp. 141
Policy Provisioning and Enforcementp. 142
Captive Portalp. 142
Authenticationp. 144
Securityp. 144
Tunneling as the VPN Foundationp. 145
Labeling (MPLS) and VPNp. 147
Service Level Agreementsp. 149
MVPN SLAp. 149
Classifying VPN Technologyp. 150
Tunneling Taxonomyp. 150
Voluntary VPNp. 151
Compulsory VPNp. 153
Chained Tunnel VPNp. 155
Architecture Taxonomy: Site-to-Site and Remote Access VPNp. 156
Site-to-Site VPNp. 156
Remote Access VPNp. 159
Moving from Wireline to Wireless and Mobilep. 162
Wireless versus Mobilep. 162
Significance of VPN in the Wireless Packet Data Environmentp. 164
Voluntary MVPNp. 165
Compulsory MVPNp. 166
Summaryp. 168
Chapter 6 GSM/GPRS and UMTS VPN Solutionsp. 169
GSM and UMTS Circuit-Switched Data Solutionsp. 170
CSD Solutions Technologiesp. 171
CSD Deployment Scenariosp. 171
Packet Data Solutionsp. 173
Packet Data Technology Solutionsp. 173
IP PDP Typep. 176
Simple IPp. 177
IP with Protocol Configuration Optionsp. 179
DHCP Relay and Mobile IPv4p. 181
PPP PDP Typep. 182
PPP Relayp. 184
PPP Terminated at the GGSNp. 185
Service Level Agreementsp. 187
Charging and Billingp. 188
Roamingp. 189
Case Study: ACME Wirelessp. 194
Summaryp. 200
Chapter 7 CDMA2000 VPN Solutionsp. 201
Overview of CDMA2000 Private Network Accessp. 202
Simple IP: A True Mobile VPN?p. 204
Simple IP VPN Architecturep. 205
Simple IP VPN Call Scenariop. 207
Mobile IP-Based VPNp. 209
Public HA VPN Optionp. 210
Public HA VPN Securityp. 211
Private HA VPNp. 213
HA Allocation in the Networkp. 217
Private HA Allocation Relative to the PDSNp. 217
Collocated PDSN/HAp. 218
Centrally Located HAp. 219
Dynamic HA Allocationp. 220
CDMA2000 IP Address Managementp. 222
Simple IP VPN Address Assignmentp. 223
Mobile IP VPN Address Assignmentp. 224
Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting for MVPN Servicep. 225
CDMA2000 AAA Architecturep. 225
CDMA2000 AAA Brokeragep. 227
Mobile IP VPN Perspectivep. 228
Simple IP VPN Perspectivep. 229
Case Studyp. 230
Summaryp. 233
Chapter 8 Mobile VPN Equipmentp. 235
MVPN Clientsp. 235
MVPN Client Implementationp. 236
MVPN Client Functionsp. 236
Software-Based Clientsp. 237
Hardware-Based Clientsp. 238
MVPN Client Design Issuesp. 239
Limited Platform Resourcesp. 239
Unreliable Physical Environmentp. 239
Support and Distributionp. 239
Security Requirementsp. 240
MVPN Gatewaysp. 240
MVPN Gateway Implementationp. 240
MVPN Gateways and Wireless Data Platformsp. 242
General-Purpose Computing Platformsp. 244
Routers and IP Switchesp. 245
Summaryp. 248
Chapter 9 The Future of Mobile Servicesp. 249
Current Wireless Systems Industry and Evolution of 3G Systemsp. 251
Service Aspectsp. 252
IP-Based Mobilityp. 255
Billing for Wireless Data Servicesp. 256
The Future of Wireless Service and Systemsp. 258
Person-to-Person Servicesp. 259
Person-to-Machine Servicesp. 261
Machine-to-Machine Servicesp. 264
Mobile Virtual Network Operatorp. 265
Lightweight MVNOp. 265
Full-Scale MVNOp. 266
MVPN in an MVNO Environmentp. 266
WLAN/Cellular Convergence and MVPNp. 267
WLAN and Cellular Integrationp. 268
WLAN Integration Methodsp. 268
IMSI-Based Authentication for WLAN Integrationp. 270
NAI-Based Authentication and Mobile IPp. 271
Summaryp. 273
Appendix A Mobile IP Extensionsp. 275
Challenge/Response Extensionsp. 275
NAI Extensionp. 277
Private Extensionsp. 278
Appendix B CDMA2000 RADIUS Accounting Attributesp. 279
Accounting Containerp. 280
IKE Attributesp. 280
Security Level, HA, Reverse Tunnel, and DiffServ Attributesp. 281
Appendix C RADIUS Usage in 3GPPp. 283
Possible Network Configurationsp. 284
RADIUS for Authenticationp. 285
RADIUS for Accountingp. 285
RADIUS for Interaction with Application Serversp. 286
Acronymsp. 291
Bibliographyp. 309
Indexp. 315