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Cover image for Acoustics and the performance of music : manual for acousticians, audio engineers, musicians, architects and musical instrument makers
Title:
Acoustics and the performance of music : manual for acousticians, audio engineers, musicians, architects and musical instrument makers
Personal Author:
Series:
Modern acoustics and signal processing
Edition:
5th ed.
Publication Information:
New York, NY : Springer, 2009
Physical Description:
438 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 24 cm.
ISBN:
9780387095165
Added Author:

Available:*

Library
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Call Number
Material Type
Item Category 1
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30000010207682 ML3805 M57 2009 Open Access Book Book
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Summary

Summary

This classic reference on musical acoustics and performance practice begins with a brief introduction to the fundamentals of acoustics and the generation of musical sounds. It then discusses the particulars of the sounds made by all the standard instruments in a modern orchestra as well as the human voice, the way in which the sounds made by these instruments are dispersed and how the room into which they are projected affects the sounds.


Author Notes

Honors:

Helmholtz-Medal of the German Acoustical Society (DEGA) 2004
Medal of Honor of Verband Deutscher Tonmeister (VDT) 2004
Fellow of the ASA


Table of Contents

1 Introduction to Acousticsp. 1
1.1 Fundamental Physical Principlesp. 1
1.1.1 Sound Pressurep. 1
1.1.2 Particle Velocityp. 2
1.1.3 Sound Powerp. 3
1.1.4 Frequencyp. 4
1.1.5 The Speed of Soundp. 4
1.1.6 Wavelengthp. 5
1.2 Characteristics of the Auditory Systemp. 6
1.2.1 The Sensation of Loudnessp. 6
1.2.2 Maskingp. 10
1.2.3 Directional Characteristicsp. 13
1.2.4 Directional Hearingp. 15
1.2.5 The Cocktail Party Effectp. 16
1.2.6 Masking for the Musicianp. 18
1.2.7 Sensitivity to Changes in Frequency and Sound Pressure Levelp. 20
2 Structure of Musical Soundp. 23
2.1 Introducing the Modelp. 23
2.2 Frequency-and Level: Structuresp. 26
2.2.1 The Harmonic Tone Structure of Sound Spectrap. 26
2.2.2 The Frequency Range of Sound Spectrap. 28
2.2.3 Formantsp. 30
2.2.4 The Effect of Individual Partialsp. 32
2.2.5 Frequency Width of Partialsp. 33
2.2.6 Noise Contributionsp. 33
2.2.7 Dynamics and the Sound Spectrump. 35
2.2.8 Dynamic Range and Sound Powerp. 36
2.3 Time Structuresp. 37
2.3.1 Deviations from a Steady Vibration Processp. 37
2.3.2 The Starting Transientp. 38
2.3.3 Inharmonic Componentsp. 40
2.3.4 Decay of Resonating Systemsp. 42
2.3.5 Decay Time and Reverberation Timep. 42
2.3.6 Fluctuations in the Quasistationary Partp. 44
3 Tonal Characteristics of Musical Instrumentsp. 45
3.1 Brass Instrumentsp. 45
3.1.1 The French Hornp. 45
3.1.2 The Trumpetp. 53
3.1.3 The Trombonep. 58
3.1.4 The Tubap. 62
3.2 Woodwind Instrumentsp. 64
3.2.1 The Flutep. 64
3.2.2 The Oboep. 70
3.2.3 The Clarinetp. 74
3.2.4 The Bassoonp. 79
3.3 String Instrumentsp. 85
3.3.1 The Violinp. 85
3.3.2 The Violap. 95
3.3.3 The Cellop. 97
3.3.4 Double Bassp. 100
3.4 The Pianop. 103
3.4.1 Sound Spectrap. 103
3.4.2 Dynamicsp. 105
3.4.3 Time Structurep. 105
3.5 The Harpsichordp. 111
3.5.1 Sound Spectrap. 111
3.5.2 Dynamicsp. 112
3.5.3 Time Structurep. 113
3.6 The Harpp. 114
3.6.1 Sound Spectrap. 114
3.6.2 Dynamicsp. 115
3.6.3 Time Structurep. 115
3.7 Percussion Instrumentsp. 116
3.7.1 Timpanip. 116
3.7.2 The Bass Drump. 118
3.7.3 Snare Drump. 119
3.7.4 Gongp. 120
3.7.5 Cymbalsp. 122
3.7.6 The Trianglep. 122
3.8 The Singing Voicep. 123
3.8.1 Sound Spectrap. 123
3.8.2 Dynamicsp. 124
3.8.3 Time Structurep. 125
3.8.4 Choral Singingp. 127
4 Directional Characteristicsp. 129
4.1 Foundations of Directional Sound Radiationp. 129
4.1.1 Directional Effects and Polar Diagramsp. 129
4.1.2 Evaluation and Representationp. 130
4.2 Brass Instrumentsp. 133
4.2.1 The Trumpetp. 133
4.2.2 The Trombonep. 135
4.2.3 The Tubap. 136
4.2.4 The French Hornp. 137
4.3 Woodwind Instrumentsp. 140
4.3.1 The Flutep. 140
4.3.2 The Oboep. 143
4.3.3 The Clarinetp. 146
4.3.4 The Bassoonp. 147
4.4 String Instrumentsp. 148
4.4.1 General Considerationsp. 148
4.4.2 The Violinp. 152
4.4.3 The Violap. 156
4.4.4 The Cellop. 159
4.4.5 The Double Bassp. 161
4.5 The Grand Pianop. 163
4.5.1 Lid Openp. 163
4.5.2 Lid Closedp. 167
4.5.3 Lid Half Openp. 167
4.5.4 Lid Removedp. 168
4.5.5 The Harpsichordp. 168
4.6 The Harpp. 169
4.7 Percussion Instrumentsp. 170
4.7.1 The Timpanip. 170
4.7.2 The Drump. 172
4.7.3 Gongsp. 173
4.8 The Singing Voicep. 175
Color Plates Following Pagep. 178
5 Foundations of Room Acousticsp. 179
5.1 Reflection and Refractionp. 179
5.1.1 Reflection from a Flat Surfacep. 179
5.1.2 Reflection from Curved Surfacesp. 180
5.1.3 Influence of the Wavelengthp. 182
5.2 Absorptionp. 186
5.3 Reverberationp. 188
5.4 Direct Sound and Diffuse Fieldp. 190
5.4.1 The Energy Densityp. 190
5.4.2 The Direct Soundp. 192
5.4.3 Diffuse-Field Distancep. 194
5.5 Temporal Structure of the Sound Fieldp. 196
6 Acoustical Properties of Old and New Performance Spacesp. 203
6.1 Concert Hallsp. 203
6.1.1 Tonal Requirementsp. 203
6.1.2 Reverberation Time and Hall Sizep. 205
6.1.3 Sound Field and Hall Shapep. 215
6.1.4 Acoustic Conditions on the Stagep. 224
6.1.5 The Location of the Conductorp. 231
6.2 Opera Housesp. 234
6.2.1 Reverberation Time and Room Sizep. 234
6.2.2 Direct Sound and Early Reflectionsp. 238
6.3 Churchesp. 245
6.4 Chamber Music Hallsp. 250
6.5 Studiosp. 254
6.6 Special Purpose Roomsp. 256
6.7 Open Air Stagesp. 258
7 Seating Arrangement in the Concert Hallp. 263
7.1 Customary Positioning of Instrument Groupsp. 263
7.2 The Tonal Effect in the Hallp. 273
7.2.1 String Instrumentsp. 273
7.2.2 Woodwind Instrumentsp. 294
7.2.3 Brass Instrumentsp. 305
7.2.4 Timpanip. 322
7.2.5 Grand Pianosp. 325
7.2.6 Harpsp. 328
7.2.7 Combined Sound of the Orchestrap. 328
7.2.8 Singing Voicesp. 343
8 Acoustic Considerations for Instrumentation and Playing Techniquep. 347
8.1 Strength of Ensemblesp. 347
8.1.1 Historical Developmentp. 347
8.1.2 Adapting to the Hallp. 350
8.2 Dynamicsp. 359
8.3 Performance Techniquep. 370
8.3.1 Articulation and Tone Presentationp. 370
8.3.2 Vibratop. 377
8.3.3 Playing Positions of Wind Instrumentsp. 380
8.4 Tempo and Room Acousticsp. 384
9 Acoustical Problems in the Opera Housep. 389
9.1 Strength of the Orchestrap. 389
9.1.1 Historical Developmentp. 389
9.1.2 Sound Level in the Hallp. 390
9.1.3 Sound Level in the Orchestra Pitp. 393
9.2 Seating Arrangement in the Orchestra Pitp. 394
9.2.1 Customary Arrangements of Instrument Groupsp. 394
9.2.2 The Tonal Effect in the Hallp. 397
9.3 Balance between Singers and Orchestrap. 403
9.4 Arrangement of Choirs and Music on Stagep. 407
9.4.1 Musicians in the Scenep. 407
9.4.2 Musicians behind the Scenep. 410
Appendix Table for Angular Dependence of the Statistical Directivity Factorp. 413
Referencesp. 415
Subject Indexp. 427
Author, Composer, and Composition Indexp. 435
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