Cover image for Terrorism and homeland security : thinking strategically about policy
Terrorism and homeland security : thinking strategically about policy
Publication Information:
Boca Raton, FL : CRC Press, 2008
Physical Description:
xxvi, 325 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.


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30000010207086 HV6432 T47 2008 Open Access Book Book

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Despite the fact that the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has been active since November of 2002, the American homeland is still not secure from terrorist attack. What passes as DHS strategy is often just a list of objectives with vague references to the garnering of national resources, and the marshalling of support from other nations.

Drawing on the expertise of several of the nation's leading reseachers and policy experts, Terrorism and Homeland Security: Thinking Strategically About Policy provides policymakers with a much needed starting point for the creation of an effective coherent national security strategy. Its origins pre-dating 9-11, this volume grew out of an extensive project featuring the participation of various institutions including the Army War College.

The primary goal: develop a strategy that optimizes security with minimal infringement on rights and liberties

After addressing points salient to a central strategy, the book then identifies the domestic and external elements that need to be addressed in building such a strategy. To this end, it examines the nature of terrorist threats, looks at challenges specific to various weapons of mass destruction, and then goes beyond terrorism to discuss safeguarding society and its infrastructure from natural disasters.

In concluding, the editors present a number of preliminary suggestions. It is hoped that policymakers and others may take these suggestions into account when developing a comprehensive national security strategy.

Table of Contents

Paul R. ViottiRobert H. DorffDavid GoldfischerJames M. Smith and Brent J. TalbotVeronica M. Kitchen and Gregory J. MooreJeffrey A. Larsen and James J. WirtzFred L. Wehling and Jeremy TamsettTerrence M. O'SullivanGreg MoserAlexander C. Diener and Timothy W. CrawfordJoseph S. SzyliowiczKevin KingMichael A. Opheim and Nicholas H. Bowen
Forewordp. xiii
Prefacep. xv
Acknowledgmentp. xvii
Contributorsp. xix
Acronymsp. xxiii
Section 1 The National Security Challenge: Developing Strategy for Terrorism and Homeland Security
1 Toward a Comprehensive Strategy for Terrorism and Homeland Securityp. 3
Strategy and the Strategic Discoursep. 9
Terrorism and Other Forms of Political Violencep. 10
Intelligence, Law Enforcement, Civil Liberties, and Human Rightsp. 11
Causal Understandings Related to Formulating Homeland Security Strategyp. 13
Societal Grievances as a Cause of Terrorism and Other Forms of Political Violencep. 14
Groups, Movements, or Insurgencies Using Political Violencep. 16
Endnotesp. 17
2 The Search for National and Homeland Security: An Integrated Grand Strategyp. 19
The Basic Elements of Strategyp. 21
Post-Gulf War I: Tracing U.S. Grand Strategyp. 23
Homeland Security and National Securityp. 25
Conclusionp. 28
Endnotesp. 30
3 Assured Vulnerability: Homeland Security and the Cold War Legacy of Defenselessnessp. 33
The Roots of Vulnerabilityp. 35
The Cold War Neglect of Homeland Securityp. 36
After 9/11: The Legacy of Neglectp. 42
The Unfinished Task of Inventing Homeland Securityp. 45
The Role of Defense Intellectualsp. 46
Developing Defense Orientations Within Homeland-Security Strategic Culturep. 47
Endnotesp. 49
4 Terrorism and Deterrence by Denialp. 53
Terrorism as a Dynamic Processp. 54
Terrorism and Deterrence by Denialp. 56
Tactical Level: Deterrence by Denial of Opportunityp. 56
Operational Level: Deterrence by Denial of Capabilityp. 58
Strategic Level: Deterrence by Denial of Objectivesp. 58
International Implementation-the "Away Game"p. 59
Identifying and Influencing the Target Populationp. 61
Denial Strategy-Marginalizing the Terrorist Messagep. 62
Denial of Capability: Public Diplomacy and Disrupting Recruitment and Retentionp. 63
Domestic Implementation-the "Home Game"p. 65
Educating and Preparing Domestic Publicsp. 65
Concluding Commentsp. 66
Endnotesp. 67
5 The Importance of Multinational and Transnational Cooperation Strategies for Homeland Securityp. 69
Homeland Security and Globalizationp. 71
Reconceptualizing Defensive Homeland Securityp. 73
Multinational and Transnational Cooperation on Homeland Securityp. 77
Judicial and Law Enforcement Cooperationp. 77
Cooperation in Civil Security and Transportationp. 79
Intelligence Cooperationp. 81
Financial Cooperationp. 83
Homeland Defense Cooperationp. 83
Cooperation through the United Nationsp. 84
Areas for Improvementp. 86
Concluding Commentsp. 89
Endnotesp. 91
Section 2 Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)
6 WMD Terrorism: New Threats, Revised Responsesp. 101
The Changing Threat of Modern Terrorismp. 104
The First Wavep. 104
The Second Wavep. 105
The Third Wavep. 106
The Fourth Wavep. 106
WMD Terrorismp. 107
Nuclear Weaponsp. 108
Biological Weaponsp. 109
Chemical Weaponsp. 110
U.S. Responses to the Threat from WMD Terrorismp. 111
Responses to Fourth-Wave Terrorismp. 112
Dealing with the Threat by Denying Access to Materialsp. 115
Concluding Commentsp. 116
Endnotesp. 116
7 Nuclear and Radioactive Threats to Homeland Security: Prevention and Responsep. 119
Characterizing Nuclear and Radioactive Threatsp. 120
Current National Prevention and Response Strategiesp. 123
Intelligencep. 124
Port Securityp. 124
DHS Role in Preparedness and Responsep. 125
Response to Nuclear and Radiological Incidentsp. 126
Federal Guidance on Radiationp. 127
Drawbacks to the Current Guidancep. 128
Survey of Public Resources for Nuclear and Radiological Terrorism Threatsp. 128
Assessment: A Strong Effort, but Gaps Remainp. 129
Priorities for a National Homeland Security Strategyp. 130
Conclusion: Integrating Prevention and Responsep. 136
Endnotesp. 137
Section 3 Strategy and the Safeguarding of Society and its Infrastructure from Terrorism and other Threats
8 Comparative Risk Analysis: Biological Terrorism, Pandemics, and Other "Forgotten" Catastrophic Disaster Threatsp. 147
A Note about Comparative Risk Assessmentp. 149
Debates about Homeland Security Strategy in Theory and Practicep. 150
The Muddled Homeland Security Mandate: FEMA the "Stepchild"p. 150
The Elusive Comparative Risk Analysis Approachp. 151
Elemental Natural Disasters and Forces Majeuresp. 152
Hurricanesp. 152
Earthquakesp. 152
Tsunamisp. 153
Floodsp. 154
For Better and Worse: Globalization, Infectious Diseases, and the Biological Centuryp. 154
The Bioterrorism-Bird Flu Nexusp. 154
Globalization Externalities: Public Health Goods and "Bads"p. 155
Naturally Occurring Disease Outbreaks and Civilian Biodefensep. 156
SARSp. 157
Avian Influenza: The Inter-Pandemic Period, and Planning for the Inevitablep. 157
Bioweapons and Bioterrorism: The Dark Side of the Biotechnology Revolutionp. 159
How Dangerous Is Bioterrorism? The BT Technology Growth Curvep. 160
Variables in Using BT Weaponsp. 162
Agricultural Bioterrorismp. 163
The Comparative Dimensions of Homeland Security Risk Analysisp. 164
The Brave New World of Katrina and Osama-But with Tradeoffsp. 165
Endnotesp. 166
9 Homeland Security Strategy and Policy Choices: A Local Government Perspectivep. 171
Consequences and Consequence Planningp. 174
Prevention, Mitigation, and Preparednessp. 178
Financing and Staffing State and Local Homeland Security Effortsp. 181
Organizing and Coordinating Federal, State, and Local Effortsp. 184
Concluding Commentsp. 186
Endnotesp. 188
10 Democracy, Civil Society, and the Damage-Limitation Component of Strategyp. 191
Making Democracy Survivablep. 192
Homeland Security Spending and Damage Limitationp. 194
The Private Sector, Civil Society, and All-Hazards Responsep. 197
Reviving Civil-Defense Educationp. 199
Concluding Commentsp. 201
Endnotesp. 201
11 Transportation as a Component of Homeland Security Strategyp. 207
Modes of Transportationp. 209
Intermodal Passenger Systemsp. 212
Freight Systemsp. 216
The Dimensions of Transportation Securityp. 220
Concluding Commentsp. 223
Endnotesp. 224
12 Redefining U.S. Energy Security in the Twenty-First Centuryp. 227
Conceptualizing Energy Securityp. 229
The U.S. Energy System: Vital Energy Sectors and Critical Infrastructure Protectionp. 235
Petroleump. 236
Natural Gasp. 237
Electricityp. 239
Coalp. 240
Nuclear Powerp. 240
Critical Infrastructure Protectionp. 241
Critical Vulnerabilities and Homeland Security Implicationsp. 243
Summary Conclusionsp. 245
Endnotesp. 246
Afterword: Terrorism and Securing the Homelandp. 253
Endnotesp. 261
Appendix The National Strategy for Homeland Securityp. 263
Strategic Objectivesp. 264
Threat and Vulnerabilityp. 264
Organizing for a Secure Homelandp. 264
Critical Mission Areasp. 265
The Foundations of Homeland Securityp. 269
Costs of Homeland Securityp. 272
Conclusion: Priorities for the Futurep. 272
Endnotesp. 274
Bibliographyp. 275
Booksp. 275
Articlesp. 281
Documentsp. 284
Web sitesp. 288
Glossaryp. 291
Indexp. 309