Cover image for Environmental and human health impacts of nanotechnology
Title:
Environmental and human health impacts of nanotechnology
Publication Information:
West Sussex, UK : Wiley, 2009
Physical Description:
xix, 435 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 26 cm.
ISBN:
9781405176347

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30000010222685 TD196.N36 E58 2009 Open Access Book
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Summary

Summary

An increased understanding of the environmental and human healthimpacts of engineered nanoparticles is essential for theresponsible development of nanotechnology and appropriateevidence-based policy and guidelines for risk assessment.Presenting the latest advances in the field from a variety ofscientific disciplines, this book offers a comprehensive overviewof this challenging, inter-disciplinary research area.

Topics covered include:

The properties, preparation and applications ofnanomaterials Characterization and analysis of manufacturednanoparticles The fate and behaviour of nanomaterials in aquatic, terrestrialand atmospheric environments Ecotoxicology and human toxicology of manufacturednanoparticles Occupational health and exposure of nanomaterials Risk assessment and global regulatory and policy responses

Understanding the behaviour and impacts of nanotechnology in theenvironment and in human health is a daunting task and manyquestions remain to be answered. Environmental and Human HealthImpacts of Nanotechnology will serve as a valuable resource foracademic researchers in nanoscience and nanotechnology,environmental science, materials science and biology, as well asfor scientists in industry, regulators and policy makers.


Author Notes

Dr Jamie Lead is Reader in Aquatic Chemistry at the University of Birmingham. He is co-editor of the book Environmental Colloids and Particles (06) Wiley.


Table of Contents

Preface
Biographies
Contributors
Chapter 1 Overview of Nanoscience in the EnvironmentM. Baalousha and J.R. Lead
1.1 Introduction
1.2 History
1.3 Definitions
1.4 Investment and International Efforts
1.5 Development: Four Anticipated Generations
1.6 Applications of Nanotechnology
1.7 Potential Benefits of Nanotechnology
1.8 Potential Adverse Effects of Nanomaterials
1.9 Classification
1.10 Sources of Nanomaterials in the Environment
1.11 Properties of Nanomaterials
1.12 Nanomaterial Structure-Toxicity Relationship
1.13 Environmental Fate and Behaviour of Nanomaterials
1.14 Potential for Human Exposure
1.15 Detection and Characterization of Nanomaterials
1.16 Issues to be Addressed
1.17 Conclusion
1.18 References
Chapter 2 Nanomaterials: Properties, Preparation and ApplicationsPaul Christian
2.1 Overview
2.2 Introduction
2.3 Nanoparticle Architecture
2.4 Particle Properties
2.5 Nanoparticle Preparation
2.6 Applications of Nanoparticles and Nanotechnology
2.7 Implication for Environmental Issues
2.8 Conclusions
2.9 References
Chapter 3 Size/Shape-Property Relationships of Non-Carbonaceous Inorganic Nanoparticles and Their Environmental ImplicationsDeborah M. Aruguete and Juan Liu and Michael F. Hochella
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Inorganic Nanoparticle Anatomy
3.3 Redox Chemistry of Nanoparticles
3.4 Size Effects in Nanoparticle Sorption Processes
3.5 Nanoparticle Fate: Dissolution and Solid State Cation Movement
3.6 Effect of Nanoparticle Aggregation on Physical and Chemical Properties
3.7 Environmental Implications: General Discussion, Recommendations and Outlook
3.8 References
Chapter 4 Natural Colloids and Nanoparticles in Aquatic and Terrestrial EnvironmentsM. Baalousha and J.R. Lead and F.v.d. Kammer and Th. Hofmann
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Definition
4.3 Major Types of Environmental Colloids
4.4 Intrinsic Properties of Environmental Colloidal Particles
4.5 Interaction Forces Between Colloidal Particles
4.6 Fate and Behaviour of Colloids in Aquatic Systems
4.7 Fate and Behaviour of Colloids and Nanoparticles in Porous Media
4.8 Conclusion
4.9 References
Chapter 5 Atmospheric NanoparticlesAurélie Charron and Roy M. Harrison
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Sources of Atmospheric Nanoparticles
5.3 Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Nanoparticles
5.4 Fate and Behaviour of Atmospheric Nanoparticles
5.5 Atmospheric Concentrations
5.6 Measurement Methods for Atmospheric Nanoparticles
5.7 Conclusions
5.8 References
Chapter 6 Analysis and Characterization of Manufactured Nanoparticles in Aquatic EnvironmentsMartin Hassellöv and Ralf Kaegi
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Nanoparticle Analysis and Characterization Methods
6.3 Analytical Test Strategy in NP Exposure Assessment
6.4 Conclusions
6.5 Acknowledgements
6.6 References
7 Ecotoxicology of Manufactured NanoparticlesSimon C. Apte and Nicola J. Rogers and Graeme E. Batley
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Physico-Chemical Transformation of Nanoparticles
7.3 Mechanisms of Nanoparticle Toxicity in the Environment
7.4 Development of Valid/Realistic Toxicity Testing Protocols
7.5 Review of Ecotoxicity Studies
7.6 General Conclusions and Future Directions
7.7 References
8 Exposure to NanoparticlesRobert J. Aitken and Karen S. Galea and C. Lang Tran and John W. Cherrie
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Physical Characteristics and Properties of Nanoparticles
8.3 Nanoparticle Exposure
8.4 Control of Exposure
8.5 Discussion
8.6 References
9 Human Toxicology and Effects of NanoparticlesVicki Stone and Martin Clift and Helinor Johnston
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Ultrafine Particle Toxicology
9.3 Engineered Nanoparticles
9.4 Relating Physico-Chemical Properties to Toxicity; Structure: Activity Relationships
9.5 Suggestions for Future Study Designs
9.6 Conclusions
9.7 Abbreviations
9.8 References
10 Risk Assessment of Manufactured NanomaterialsSophie A. Rocks and Simon J. Pollard and Robert A. Dorey and Paul T. C. Harrison and Len S. Levy and Richard D. Handy and John F. Garrod and Richard Owen
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Risk Assessment Process
10.3 Nanomaterials Issues for Risk Assessment
10.4 Assembling Evidence for Safety and Intervention
10.5 International Case Studies
10.6 Data Gaps in Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials
10.7 Summary
10.8 References