Cover image for UNIX administration : a comprehensive sourcebook for effective systems and network management
Title:
UNIX administration : a comprehensive sourcebook for effective systems and network management
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Series:
Internet and communications
Publication Information:
Boca Raton, FL : CRC Press, 2002
ISBN:
9780849313516

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30000004736264 QA76.76.O63 L486 2002 Open Access Book Book
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Summary

Summary

To configure and maintain an operating system is serious business. With UNIX and its wide variety of "flavors," it can be especially difficult and frustrating, and networking with UNIX adds still more challenges.

UNIX Administration: A Comprehensive Sourcebook for Effective Systems & Network Management is a one-stop handbook for the administration and maintenance of UNIX systems and networks. With an outstanding balance of concepts and practical matters, it covers the entire range of administrative tasks, from the most basic to the advanced, from system startup and shutdown to network security and kernel reconfiguration. While focusing on the primary UNIX platforms, the author discusses all of the most common UNIX "flavors," including Solaris, Linux, HP-UX, AIX and SGI IRIX. Three chapters of case studies offer a practical look at UNIX implementation issues: UNIX installation, disk space upgrade, and several emergency situations that every administrator must expect to face at some point.

Diverse yet detailed, filled with examples and specific procedures, this is the one book that both the novice and the seasoned professional need to learn UNIX administration and effectively perform their daily system and network-related duties.


Table of Contents

Section I UNIX Administration
1 UNIX--Introductory Notesp. 3
1.1 UNIX Operating Systemp. 3
1.2 User's View of UNIXp. 5
1.3 The History of UNIXp. 6
1.3.1 Berkeley Standard Distribution--BSD UNIXp. 7
1.3.2 System V or ATT UNIXp. 7
1.4 UNIX System and Network Administrationp. 11
1.4.1 System Administrator's Jobp. 13
1.4.2 Computing Policiesp. 16
1.4.3 Administration Guidelinesp. 19
1.4.4 In This Bookp. 25
2 The UNIX Model--Selected Topicsp. 27
2.1 Introductionp. 27
2.2 Filesp. 28
2.2.1 File Ownershipp. 28
2.2.2 File Protection/File Accessp. 32
2.2.3 Access Control Lists (ACLs)p. 39
2.2.4 File Typesp. 42
2.3 Devices and Special Device Filesp. 46
2.3.1 Special File Namesp. 48
2.3.2 Special File Creationp. 48
2.4 Processesp. 50
2.4.1 Process Parametersp. 50
2.4.2 Process Life Cyclesp. 53
2.4.3 Process Handlingp. 55
3 UNIX Administration Startersp. 63
3.1 Superuser and Usersp. 63
3.1.1 Becoming a Superuserp. 63
3.1.2 Communicating with Other Usersp. 64
3.1.3 The su Commandp. 64
3.2 UNIX Online Documentationp. 65
3.2.1 The man Commandp. 65
3.2.2 The whatis Databasep. 69
3.3 System Informationp. 70
3.3.1 System Status Informationp. 70
3.3.2 Hardware Informationp. 72
3.4 Personal Documentationp. 76
3.5 Shell Script Programmingp. 77
3.5.1 UNIX User Shellp. 78
3.5.2 UNIX Shell Scriptsp. 78
4 System Startup and Shutdownp. 85
4.1 Introductory Notesp. 85
4.2 System Startupp. 86
4.2.1 The Bootstrap Programp. 87
4.2.2 The Kernel Executionp. 88
4.2.3 The Overall System Initializationp. 89
4.2.4 System Statesp. 90
4.2.5 The Outlook of a Startup Procedurep. 91
4.2.6 Initialization Scriptsp. 93
4.3 BSD Initializationp. 94
4.3.1 The BSD rc Scriptsp. 94
4.3.2 BSD Initialization Sequencep. 94
4.4 System V Initializationp. 96
4.4.1 The Configuration File /etc/inittabp. 97
4.4.2 System V rc Initialization Scriptsp. 99
4.4.3 BSD-Like Initializationp. 104
4.5 Shutdown Proceduresp. 106
4.5.1 The BSD shutdown Commandp. 106
4.5.2 The System V shutdown Commandp. 107
4.5.3 An Examplep. 108
5 UNIX Filesystem Managementp. 109
5.1 Introduction to the UNIX Filesystemp. 109
5.2 UNIX Filesystem Directory Organizationp. 110
5.2.1 BSD Filesystem Directory Organizationp. 110
5.2.2 System V Filesystem Directory Organizationp. 113
5.3 Mounting and Dismounting Filesystemsp. 114
5.3.1 Mounting a Filesystemp. 115
5.3.2 Dismounting a Filesystemp. 119
5.3.3 Automatic Filesystem Mountingp. 120
5.3.4 Removable Media Managementp. 120
5.4 Filesystem Configurationp. 121
5.4.1 BSD Filesystem Configuration Filep. 121
5.4.2 System V Filesystem Configuration Filep. 123
5.4.3 AIX Filesystem Configuration Filep. 125
5.4.4 The Filesystem Status Filep. 128
5.5 A Few Other Filesystem Issuesp. 129
5.5.1 Filesystem Typesp. 129
5.5.2 Swap Space--Paging and Swappingp. 131
5.5.3 Loopback Virtual Filesystemp. 133
5.6 Managing Filesystem Usagep. 134
5.6.1 Display Filesystem Statistics: The df Commandp. 134
5.6.2 Report on Disk Usage: The du Commandp. 136
5.6.3 Report on Disk Usage by Users: The quot Commandp. 139
5.6.4 Checking Filesystems: The fsck Commandp. 139
6 UNIX Filesystem Layoutp. 143
6.1 Introductionp. 143
6.2 Physical Filesystem Layoutp. 144
6.2.1 Disk Partitionsp. 145
6.2.2 Filesystem Structuresp. 147
6.2.3 Filesystem Creationp. 148
6.2.4 File Identification and Allocationp. 150
6.2.5 Filesystem Performance Issuesp. 152
6.3 Logical Filesystem Layoutp. 155
6.3.1 Logical Volume Manager--AIX Flavorp. 156
6.3.2 Logical Volume Manager--HP-UX Flavorp. 158
6.3.3 Logical Volume Manager--Solaris Flavorp. 160
6.3.4 Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (RAID)p. 163
6.3.5 Snapshotp. 164
6.3.6 Virtual UNIX Filesystemp. 167
6.4 Disk Space Upgradep. 168
7 User Account Managementp. 169
7.1 Users and Groupsp. 169
7.1.1 Creation of User Accountsp. 170
7.1.2 User Database--File /etc/passwdp. 170
7.1.3 Group Database--File /etc/groupp. 172
7.1.4 Creating User Home Directoriesp. 172
7.1.5 UNIX Login Initializationp. 173
7.1.6 Utilities to Create User Accountsp. 181
7.2 Maintenance of User Accountsp. 185
7.2.1 Restricted User Accountsp. 185
7.2.2 Users and Secondary Groupsp. 186
7.2.3 Assigning User Passwordsp. 186
7.2.4 Standard UNIX Users and Groupsp. 187
7.2.5 Removing User Accountsp. 188
7.3 Disk Quotasp. 189
7.3.1 Managing Disk Usage by Usersp. 189
7.4 Accountingp. 190
7.4.1 BSD Accountingp. 192
7.4.2 System V Accountingp. 192
7.4.3 AIX-Flavored Accountingp. 196
8 UNIX System Securityp. 197
8.1 UNIX Lines of Defensep. 197
8.1.1 Physical Securityp. 198
8.1.2 Passwordsp. 198
8.1.3 File Permissionsp. 199
8.1.4 Encryptionp. 199
8.1.5 Backupsp. 200
8.2 Password Issuesp. 200
8.2.1 Password Encryptionp. 200
8.2.2 Choosing a Passwordp. 201
8.2.3 Setting Password Restrictionsp. 202
8.2.4 A Shadowed Passwordp. 203
8.3 Secure Console and Terminalsp. 206
8.3.1 Traditional BSD Approachp. 207
8.3.2 The Wheel Groupp. 207
8.3.3 Secure Terminals--Other Approachesp. 207
8.4 Monitoring and Detecting Security Problemsp. 209
8.4.1 Important Files for System Securityp. 209
8.4.2 Monitoring System Activitiesp. 210
8.4.3 Monitoring Login Attemptsp. 211
9 UNIX Logging Subsystemp. 213
9.1 The Concept of System Loggingp. 213
9.1.1 The syslogd Daemonp. 214
9.2 System Logging Configurationp. 216
9.2.1 The Configuration File /etc/syslog.confp. 216
9.2.2 Linux Logging Enhancementsp. 220
9.2.3 The logger Commandp. 221
9.2.4 Testing System Loggingp. 221
9.3 Accounting Log Filesp. 224
9.3.1 The last Commandp. 224
9.3.2 Limiting the Growth of Log Filesp. 225
10 UNIX Printingp. 227
10.1 UNIX Printing Subsystemp. 227
10.1.1 BSD Printing Subsystemp. 229
10.1.2 System V Printing Subsystemp. 231
10.2 Printing Subsystem Configurationp. 236
10.2.1 BSD Printer Configuration and the Printer Capability Databasep. 236
10.2.2 System V Printer Configuration and the Printer Capability Databasep. 243
10.2.3 AIX Printing Facilitiesp. 246
10.3 Adding New Printersp. 249
10.3.1 Adding a New Local Printerp. 249
10.3.2 Adding a New Remote Printerp. 252
10.4 UNIX Cross-Platform Printer Spoolingp. 256
10.4.1 BSD and AIX Cross-Printingp. 256
10.4.2 Solaris and BSD Cross-Printingp. 256
10.4.3 Third-Party Printer Spooling Systemsp. 259
11 Terminalsp. 261
11.1 Terminal Characteristicsp. 261
11.1.1 BSD Terminal Subsystemp. 261
11.1.2 System V Terminal Subsystemp. 269
11.1.3 Terminal-Related Special Device Filesp. 276
11.1.4 Configuration Data Summaryp. 276
11.2 The tset, tput, and stty Commandsp. 277
11.2.1 The tset Commandp. 277
11.2.2 The tput Commandp. 278
11.2.3 The stty Commandp. 279
11.3 Pseudo Terminalsp. 281
11.4 Terminal Serversp. 283
12 UNIX Backup and Restorep. 285
12.1 Introductionp. 285
12.1.1 Mediap. 286
12.2 Tape-Related Commandsp. 288
12.2.1 The tar Commandp. 288
12.2.2 The cpio Commandp. 290
12.2.3 The dd Commandp. 291
12.2.4 The mt Commandp. 292
12.2.5 Magnetic Tape Devices and Special Device Filesp. 293
12.3 Backing Up a UNIX Filesystemp. 294
12.3.1 Planning a Backup Schedulep. 294
12.4 Backup and Dump Commandsp. 296
12.4.1 The SVR3 and SVR4 backup Commandsp. 296
12.4.2 The fbackup Commandp. 298
12.4.3 The dump/ufsdump Commandp. 299
12.4.4 A Few Examplesp. 302
12.5 Restoring Files from a Backupp. 306
12.5.1 The restore Commandsp. 306
12.5.2 The frecover Commandp. 310
12.5.3 Restoring Multiple Filesystems Archived on a Single Tapep. 311
12.6 Tape Controlp. 312
13 Time-Related UNIX Facilitiesp. 315
13.1 Network Time Distributionp. 315
13.1.1 The NTP Daemonp. 315
13.1.2 The NTP Configuration Filep. 316
13.2 Periodic Program Executionp. 321
13.2.1 The UNIX cron Daemonp. 322
13.2.2 The crontab Filesp. 324
13.2.3 The crontab Commandp. 326
13.2.4 Linux Approachp. 327
13.3 Programs Scheduled for a Specific Timep. 329
13.3.1 The UNIX at Utilityp. 330
13.4 Batch Processingp. 332
13.4.1 The UNIX batch Utilityp. 333
Section II Network Administration
14 Network Fundamentalsp. 337
14.1 UNIX and Networkingp. 337
14.2 Computer Networksp. 338
14.2.1 Local Area Network (LAN)p. 338
14.2.2 Wide Area Network (WAN)p. 341
14.3 A TCP/IP Overviewp. 342
14.3.1 TCP/IP and the Internetp. 343
14.3.2 ISO OSI Reference Modelp. 343
14.3.3 TCP/IP Protocol Architecturep. 346
14.4 TCP/IP Layers and Protocolsp. 348
14.4.1 Network Access Layerp. 348
14.4.2 Internet Layer and IP Protocolp. 349
14.4.3 Transport Layer and TCP and UDP Protocolsp. 351
14.4.4 Application Layerp. 353
15 TCP/IP Networkp. 355
15.1 Data Deliveryp. 355
15.1.1 IP Address Classesp. 355
15.1.2 Internet Routingp. 358
15.1.3 Multiplexingp. 363
15.2 Address Resolution (ARP)p. 366
15.2.1 The arp Commandp. 367
15.3 Remote Procedure Call (RPC)p. 368
15.3.1 The portmapper Daemonp. 370
15.3.2 The /etc/rpc Filep. 371
15.4 Configuring the Network Interfacep. 372
15.4.1 The ifconfig Commandp. 373
15.4.2 The netstat Commandp. 374
15.5 Super Internet Serverp. 377
15.5.1 The inetd Daemonp. 377
15.5.2 Further Improvements and Developmentp. 379
16 Domain Name Systemp. 385
16.1 Naming Conceptsp. 385
16.1.1 Host Names and Addressesp. 385
16.1.2 Domain Name Service (DNS)p. 386
16.1.3 Host Database Filesp. 389
16.2 UNIX Name Service--BINDp. 393
16.2.1 BIND Configurationp. 395
16.2.2 Resolversp. 395
16.2.3 Name Serversp. 399
16.3 Configuring namedp. 400
16.3.1 BIND Version 4.X.Xp. 401
16.3.2 BIND Version 8.X.Xp. 408
16.4 Using nslookupp. 414
16.4.1 The nslookup Interactive Modep. 414
16.4.2 A Few Examples of nslookup Usagep. 416
17 Network Information Service (NIS)p. 419
17.1 Purpose and Conceptsp. 419
17.2 NIS Paradigmp. 421
17.2.1 yp Processesp. 422
17.2.2 To Create an NIS Serverp. 423
17.2.3 To Create an NIS Clientp. 426
17.2.4 NIS Domain Namep. 427
17.2.5 Databases/NIS Mapsp. 428
17.3 NIS Managementp. 430
17.3.1 yp Commandsp. 431
17.3.2 Updating NIS Mapsp. 432
17.3.3 Troubleshootingp. 435
17.3.4 Security Issuesp. 437
17.3.5 A Few NIS Storiesp. 438
17.4 NIS vs. DNSp. 440
17.4.1 The /etc/nsswitch.conf Filep. 440
17.4.2 Once upon a Timep. 442
18 Network File System (NFS)p. 445
18.1 NFS Overviewp. 445
18.1.1 NFS Daemonsp. 446
18.2 Exporting and Mounting Remote Filesystemsp. 447
18.2.1 Exporting a Filesystemp. 447
18.2.2 Mounting Remote Filesystemsp. 452
18.3 Automounterp. 453
18.3.1 The Automount Mapsp. 455
18.4 NFS--Security Issuesp. 459
19 UNIX Remote Commandsp. 461
19.1 UNIX r Commandsp. 461
19.1.1 The rlogin Commandp. 462
19.1.2 The rcp Commandp. 463
19.1.3 The remsh (rsh) Commandp. 463
19.2 Securing the UNIX r Commandsp. 464
19.2.1 The /etc/hosts.equiv Filep. 465
19.2.2 The $HOME/.rhosts Filep. 466
19.2.3 Using UNIX r-Commands--An Examplep. 466
19.3 Secure Shell (SSH)p. 467
19.3.1 SSH Conceptp. 468
19.3.2 SSH Configurationp. 471
19.3.3 SSH Installation and User Access Setupp. 473
19.3.4 SSH--Version 2p. 476
20 Electronic Mailp. 479
20.1 E-mail Fundamentalsp. 479
20.1.1 Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP)p. 482
20.1.2 The MTA Program sendmailp. 484
20.2 Sendmail Configurationp. 490
20.2.1 The sendmail.cf Filep. 491
20.2.2 Rulesets and Rewrite Rulesp. 498
20.2.3 Creating the sendmail.cf Filep. 504
20.3 The Parsing of E-mail Addressesp. 506
20.3.1 Rewriting an E-mail Addressp. 507
20.3.2 Pattern Matchingp. 507
20.3.3 Address Transformationp. 508
20.4 Testing sendmail Configurationp. 510
20.4.1 Testing Rewrite Rulesp. 510
20.4.2 The sendmail -bt Commandp. 511
20.4.3 The Debugging Levelp. 512
20.4.4 Checking the Mail Queuep. 512
20.5 Mail User Agentsp. 513
20.5.1 The Mail Program and .mailrc Filep. 513
20.5.2 POP and IMAPp. 516
21 UNIX Network Supportp. 521
21.1 Common UNIX Network Applicationsp. 521
21.1.1 Telnetp. 522
21.1.2 FTPp. 523
21.1.3 Fingerp. 528
21.2 Host Connectivityp. 530
21.2.1 The ping Commandp. 530
21.2.2 The traceroute Commandp. 532
Section III Supplemental Unix Topics
22 X Window Systemp. 537
22.1 An Introduction to the X Window Systemp. 537
22.1.1 The Design of X11p. 537
22.1.2 The X Administration Philosophyp. 541
22.1.3 Window Managersp. 541
22.2 The X Display Managersp. 543
22.2.1 xdm/dtlogin Conceptsp. 544
22.2.2 xdm Configuration Filesp. 547
22.2.3 CDE Configuration Filesp. 554
22.2.4 Vendor-Specific X Flavors--a Configuration Examplep. 561
22.3 Access Control and Security of X11p. 563
22.3.1 XDMCP Queriesp. 563
22.3.2 The Xaccess Filep. 564
22.3.3 Other Access Control Mechanismsp. 567
22.4 The User X Environmentp. 570
22.4.1 Components of the xdm-Based User X Environmentp. 570
22.4.2 Components of the CDE User X Environmentp. 572
22.4.3 Window Manager Customizationsp. 577
22.4.4 The Shell Environmentp. 581
22.5 Miscellaneousp. 586
22.5.1 Other Startup Methodsp. 586
22.5.2 A Permanent X11 Installationp. 588
22.5.3 A Few X-Related Commandsp. 589
23 Kernel Reconfigurationp. 591
23.1 Introduction to Kernel Reconfigurationp. 591
23.2 Kernel Configuration Databasep. 592
23.3 BSD-Like Kernel Configuration Approachp. 593
23.3.1 Basic Configuration Entriesp. 593
23.3.2 The BSD-Like Kernel Configuration Procedurep. 597
23.3.3 The config Commandp. 599
23.4 Other Flavored Kernel Reconfigurationsp. 600
23.4.1 HP-UX 10.x Kernel Configurationp. 600
23.4.2 Solaris 2.x Kernel Configurationp. 602
23.4.3 Linux Kernel Configurationp. 609
24 Modems and UUCPp. 615
24.1 Introduction to Modemsp. 615
24.1.1 UNIX and Modemsp. 616
24.2 UNIX Modem Controlp. 617
24.2.1 Terminal Lines and Modem Controlp. 617
24.2.2 Modem-Related UNIX Commandsp. 619
24.3 Third-Party Communication Softwarep. 620
24.3.1 C-Kermitp. 621
24.4 Introduction to UUCPp. 627
24.4.1 How Does UUCP Work?p. 627
24.4.2 UUCP Versionsp. 628
24.4.3 UUCP Chat-Transfer Sessionp. 629
24.5 UUCP Commands, Daemons, and Related Issuesp. 630
24.5.1 The Major UUCP Commandsp. 630
24.5.2 The UUCP Daemonsp. 632
24.5.3 The UUCP Spool Directories and Filesp. 635
24.6 Configuring a UUCP Linkp. 636
24.6.1 Serial Line-Related Issuesp. 636
24.6.2 UUCP Configuration Filesp. 637
24.7 UUCP Access and Security Considerationp. 641
24.7.1 Additional Security in BNU UUCPp. 642
24.7.2 Additional Security in Version 2 UUCPp. 644
25 Intranetp. 645
25.1 Introduction to Intranetp. 645
25.1.1 Intranet vs. Internetp. 646
25.1.2 Intranet Design Approachp. 648
25.2 Intranet Front-End Servicesp. 649
25.2.1 Firewallsp. 650
25.2.2 Viruswallsp. 656
25.2.3 Proxy Serversp. 660
25.2.4 Web Servicesp. 664
25.2.5 Other External Servicesp. 669
25.3 Inside the Intranetp. 670
25.3.1 Network Infrastructure and Desktopsp. 671
25.3.2 Internal Servicesp. 672
25.3.3 Virtual Private Network (VPN)p. 675
25.3.4 UNIX and Not-UNIX Platform Integrationp. 678
Section IV Case Studies
26 UNIX Installationp. 683
26.1 Introductory Notesp. 683
26.2 UNIX Installation Proceduresp. 683
26.2.1 HP-UX Installationp. 684
26.2.2 Solaris Installationp. 686
26.2.3 Linux Installationp. 690
26.3 Supplemental Installationsp. 692
26.3.1 Supplemental System Softwarep. 693
26.3.2 Patchesp. 698
27 Upgrade Disk Spacep. 701
27.1 Adding a Diskp. 701
27.1.1 New Disk on the Solaris Platformp. 701
27.1.2 New Disk on the SunOS Platformp. 703
27.1.3 New disk on the HP-UX Platformp. 704
27.2 Logical Volume Manager Case Studyp. 708
27.2.1 LVM on the HP-UX Platformp. 708
27.2.2 LVM on the Solaris Platformp. 710
28 UNIX Emergency Situationsp. 713
28.1 Introductory Notesp. 713
28.2 Lost Root Passwordp. 713
28.2.1 Solaris and Lost Root Passwordp. 714
28.2.2 HP-UX and Lost Root Passwordp. 714
28.3 Some Special Administrative Situationsp. 715
28.3.1 Solaris Procedure to Create an Alternate Boot Partitionp. 715
28.3.2 Solaris Recovery of the Failed Mirrored Boot Diskp. 717
28.3.3 HP-UX Support Disk Usagep. 720
28.3.4 HP-UX Procedure to Synchronize a Mirrored Logical Volumep. 721
28.3.5 HP-UX Support Tape and Recovery of Root Diskp. 722
Recommended Readingp. 725
Indexp. 729