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### Summary

### Summary

Internal combustion engines still have a potential for substantial improvements, particularly with regard to fuel efficiency and environmental compatibility. These goals can be achieved with help of control systems. Modeling and Control of Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) addresses these issues by offering an introduction to cost-effective model-based control system design for ICE. The primary emphasis is put on the ICE and its auxiliary devices. Mathematical models for these processes are developed in the text and selected feedforward and feedback control problems are discussed. The appendix contains a summary of the most important controller analysis and design methods, and a case study that analyzes a simplified idle-speed control problem. The book is written for students interested in the design of classical and novel ICE control systems.

### Table of Contents

1 Introduction | p. 1 |

1.1 Control Systems for IC Engines | p. 1 |

1.1.1 Relevance of Engine Control Systems | p. 1 |

1.1.2 Electronic Engine Control Hardware and Software | p. 2 |

1.2 Overview of SI Engine Control Problems | p. 3 |

1.2.1 General Remarks | p. 3 |

1.2.2 Main Control Loops in SI Engines | p. 5 |

1.2.3 Future Developments | p. 7 |

1.3 Overview of CI Engine Control Problems | p. 9 |

1.3.1 General Remarks | p. 9 |

1.3.2 Main Control Loops in Diesel Engines | p. 11 |

1.3.3 Future Developments | p. 15 |

1.4 Structure of the Text | p. 16 |

1.5 Notation | p. 17 |

2 Mean-Value Models | p. 21 |

2.1 Introduction | p. 22 |

2.2 Cause and Effect Diagrams | p. 24 |

2.2.1 Spark-Ignited Engines | p. 25 |

2.2.2 Diesel Engines | p. 28 |

2.3 Air System | p. 30 |

2.3.1 Receivers | p. 30 |

2.3.2 Valve Mass Flows | p. 31 |

2.3.3 Engine Mass Flows | p. 35 |

2.3.4 Exhaust Gas Recirculation | p. 37 |

2.3.5 Superchargers | p. 40 |

2.4 Fuel System | p. 52 |

2.4.1 Introduction | p. 52 |

2.4.2 Wall-Wetting Dynamics | p. 53 |

2.4.3 Gas Mixing and Transport Delays | p. 63 |

2.5 Mechanical System | p. 64 |

2.5.1 Torque Generation | p. 64 |

2.5.2 Engine Speed | p. 74 |

2.6 Thermal Systems | p. 79 |

2.6.1 Introduction | p. 79 |

2.6.2 Engine Exhaust Gas Enthalpy | p. 80 |

2.6.3 Thermal Model of the Exhaust Manifold | p. 82 |

2.6.4 Simplified Thermal Model | p. 83 |

2.6.5 Detailed Thermal Model | p. 84 |

2.7 Pollutant Formation | p. 91 |

2.7.1 Introduction | p. 91 |

2.7.2 Stoichiometric Combustion | p. 92 |

2.7.3 Pollutant Formation in SI Engines | p. 93 |

2.7.4 Pollutant Formation in Diesel Engines | p. 99 |

2.7.5 Control-Oriented NO Model | p. 101 |

2.8 Pollutant Abatement Systems | p. 105 |

2.8.1 Introduction | p. 105 |

2.8.2 Pollution Abatement Systems for SI Engines | p. 105 |

2.8.3 Pollution Abatement Systems for Diesel Engines | p. 118 |

3 Discrete-Event Models | p. 129 |

3.1 Introduction to DEM | p. 130 |

3.1.1 When are DEM Required? | p. 130 |

3.1.2 Discrete-Time Effects of the Combustion | p. 130 |

3.1.3 Discrete Action of the ECU | p. 132 |

3.1.4 DEM for Injection and Ignition | p. 135 |

3.2 The Most Important DEM in Engine Systems | p. 138 |

3.2.1 DEM of the Mean Torque Production | p. 138 |

3.2.2 DEM of the Air Flow Dynamics | p. 143 |

3.2.3 DEM of the Fuel-Flow Dynamics | p. 146 |

3.2.4 DEM of the Back-Flow Dynamics of CNG Engines | p. 155 |

3.2.5 DEM of the Residual Gas Dynamics | p. 157 |

3.2.6 DEM of the Exhaust System | p. 160 |

3.3 DEM Based on Cylinder Pressure Information | p. 162 |

3.3.1 General Remarks | p. 162 |

3.3.2 Estimation of Burned-Mass Fraction | p. 163 |

3.3.3 Cylinder Charge Estimation | p. 165 |

3.3.4 Torque Variations Due to Pressure Pulsations | p. 170 |

4 Control of Engine Systems | p. 173 |

4.1 Introduction | p. 174 |

4.1.1 General Remarks | p. 174 |

4.1.2 Software Structure | p. 175 |

4.1.3 Engine Operating Point | p. 178 |

4.1.4 Engine Calibration | p. 179 |

4.2 Air/Fuel Ratio Control System | p. 181 |

4.2.1 Feedforward Control System | p. 181 |

4.2.2 Feedback Control System | p. 186 |

4.3 Control of an SCR System | p. 206 |

4.4 Engine Thermomanagement | p. 211 |

4.4.1 Introduction | p. 211 |

4.4.2 Control Problem Formulation | p. 212 |

4.4.3 Feedforward Control System | p. 214 |

4.4.4 Experimental Results | p. 216 |

A Appendix A | p. 223 |

A.1 Modeling of Dynamic Systems | p. 223 |

A.2 System Description and System Properties | p. 232 |

A.3 Model Uncertainty | p. 238 |

A.4 Control System Design for Nominal Plants | p. 241 |

A.5 Control System Design for Uncertain Plants | p. 250 |

A.6 Controller Discretization | p. 253 |

A.7 Controller Realization | p. 262 |

A.7.1 Gain Scheduling | p. 263 |

A.7.2 Anti Reset Windup | p. 264 |

A.8 Further Reading | p. 264 |

B Appendix B | p. 267 |

B.1 Modeling of the Idle Speed System | p. 268 |

B.1.1 Introduction | p. 268 |

B.1.2 System Structure | p. 269 |

B.1.3 Description of Subsystems | p. 270 |

B.2 Parameter Identification and Model Validation | p. 277 |

B.2.1 Static Behavior | p. 277 |

B.2.2 Dynamic Behavior | p. 281 |

B.2.3 Numerical Values of the Model Parameters | p. 283 |

B.3 Description of Linear System | p. 285 |

B.4 Control System Design and Implementation | p. 287 |

References | p. 291 |