Title:

Vehicle propulsion systems : introduction to modeling and optimization

Personal Author:

Publication Information:

New York, NY : Springer, 2005

ISBN:

9783540251958

Added Author:

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Library | Item Barcode | Call Number | Material Type | Item Category 1 | Status |
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Searching... | 30000010093228 | TL210 G89 2005 | Open Access Book | Book | Searching... |

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### Summary

### Summary

Automobiles are responsible for a substantial part of the world's consumption of primary energy, mostly fossil liquid hydrocarbons. The reduction of the fuel consumption of these vehicles has become a top priority. Many ideas to reach that objective have been presented. In most cases these systems are more complex than the traditional approaches. For such complex systems a heuristic design approach fails. The only way to deal with this situation is to employ model-based methods. This text provides an introduction to the mathematical modeling and subsequent optimization of vehicle propulsion systems and their supervisory control algorithms. Book jacket.

### Table of Contents

1 Introduction | p. 1 |

1.1 Objectives | p. 1 |

1.2 Upstream Processes | p. 4 |

1.3 Energy Density of On-Board Energy Carriers | p. 9 |

1.4 Pathways to Better Fuel Economy | p. 11 |

2 Vehicle Energy and Fuel Consumption - Basic Concepts | p. 13 |

2.1 Vehicle Energy Losses and Performance Analysis | p. 13 |

2.1.1 Energy Losses | p. 13 |

2.1.2 Performance and Drivability | p. 18 |

2.1.3 Vehicle Operating Modes | p. 20 |

2.2 Energy Demand in Driving Cycles | p. 21 |

2.2.1 Test Cycles | p. 21 |

2.2.2 Mechanical Energy Demand | p. 22 |

2.2.3 Some Remarks on the Energy Consumption | p. 27 |

2.3 Methods and Tools | p. 31 |

2.3.1 Average Operating Point Approach | p. 31 |

2.3.2 Quasistatic Approach | p. 32 |

2.3.3 Dynamic Approach | p. 36 |

2.3.4 Optimization Problems | p. 37 |

2.3.5 Software Tools | p. 38 |

3 IC-Engine-Based Propulsion Systems | p. 41 |

3.1 IC Engine Models | p. 41 |

3.1.1 Introduction | p. 41 |

3.1.2 Normalized Engine Variables | p. 42 |

3.1.3 Engine Efficiency Representation | p. 43 |

3.2 Gear-Box Models | p. 45 |

3.2.1 Introduction | p. 45 |

3.2.2 Selection of Gear Ratios | p. 45 |

3.2.3 Gear-Box Efficiency | p. 47 |

3.2.4 Losses in Friction Clutches and Torque Converters | p. 49 |

3.3 Fuel Consumption of IC Engine Power Trains | p. 52 |

3.3.1 Introduction | p. 52 |

3.3.2 Average Operating Point Method | p. 52 |

3.3.3 Quasistatic Method | p. 54 |

4 Models of Electric and Hybrid-Electric Propulsion Systems | p. 57 |

4.1 Electric Propulsion Systems | p. 57 |

4.2 Hybrid-Electric Propulsion Systems | p. 58 |

4.2.1 System Configurations | p. 59 |

4.2.2 Power Flow | p. 62 |

4.2.3 Concepts Realized | p. 67 |

4.2.4 Modeling of Hybrid Vehicles | p. 67 |

4.3 Electric Motors | p. 68 |

4.3.1 Quasistatic Modeling of Electric Motors | p. 72 |

4.3.2 Dynamic Modeling of Electric Motors | p. 87 |

4.4 Modeling of Generators | p. 89 |

4.5 Batteries | p. 89 |

4.5.1 Quasistatic Modeling of Batteries | p. 92 |

4.5.2 Dynamic Modeling of Batteries | p. 101 |

4.6 Supercapacitors | p. 105 |

4.6.1 Quasistatic Modeling of Supercapacitors | p. 106 |

4.6.2 Dynamic Modeling of Supercapacitors | p. 109 |

4.7 Electric Power Links | p. 110 |

4.7.1 Quasistatic Modeling of Electric Power Links | p. 111 |

4.7.2 Dynamic Modeling of Electric Power Links | p. 112 |

4.8 Torque Couplers | p. 113 |

4.8.1 Quasistatic Modeling of Torque Couplers | p. 114 |

4.8.2 Dynamic Modeling of Torque Couplers | p. 115 |

4.9 Planetary Gear Sets | p. 116 |

4.9.1 Quasistatic Modeling of Planetary Gear Sets | p. 116 |

4.9.2 Dynamic Modeling of Planetary Gear Sets | p. 119 |

5 Models of Hybrid-Inertial and Hybrid-Hydraulic Propulsion Systems | p. 121 |

5.1 Short-Term Storage Systems | p. 121 |

5.2 Flywheels | p. 124 |

5.2.1 Quasistatic Modeling of Flywheel Accumulators | p. 127 |

5.2.2 Dynamic Modeling of Flywheel Accumulators | p. 130 |

5.3 Continuously Variable Transmissions | p. 130 |

5.3.1 Quasistatic Modeling of CVTs | p. 131 |

5.3.2 Dynamic Modeling of CVTs | p. 134 |

5.4 Hydraulic Accumulators | p. 135 |

5.4.1 Quasistatic Modeling of Hydraulic Accumulators | p. 136 |

5.4.2 Dynamic Modeling of Hydraulic Accumulators | p. 142 |

5.5 Hydraulic Pumps/Motors | p. 143 |

5.5.1 Quasistatic Modeling of Hydraulic Pumps/Motors | p. 144 |

5.5.2 Dynamic Modeling of Hydraulic Pumps/Motors | p. 146 |

6 Models of Fuel-Cell Propulsion Systems | p. 147 |

6.1 Fuel-Cell Electric Vehicles and Fuel-Cell Hybrid Vehicles | p. 147 |

6.1.1 Concepts Realized | p. 149 |

6.2 Fuel Cells | p. 149 |

6.2.1 Quasistatic Modeling of Fuel Cells | p. 161 |

6.2.2 Dynamic Modeling of Fuel Cells | p. 175 |

6.3 Reformers | p. 180 |

6.3.1 Quasistatic Modeling of Fuel Reformers | p. 183 |

6.3.2 Dynamic Modeling of Fuel Reformers | p. 187 |

7 Supervisory Control Algorithms | p. 189 |

7.1 Introduction | p. 189 |

7.2 Heuristic Control Strategies | p. 190 |

7.3 Optimal Control Strategies | p. 192 |

7.4 Sub-Optimal Control Strategies | p. 196 |

7.4.1 Equivalence Factors | p. 197 |

7.4.2 Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy | p. 199 |

7.4.3 T-ECMS | p. 201 |

8 Appendix I - Case Studies | p. 205 |

8.1 Case Study 1: Gear Ratio Optimization | p. 205 |

8.1.1 Introduction | p. 205 |

8.1.2 Software Structure | p. 205 |

8.1.3 Results | p. 207 |

8.2 Case Study 2: IC Engine and Flywheel Powertrain | p. 209 |

8.2.1 Introduction | p. 209 |

8.2.2 Modeling and Experimental Validation | p. 211 |

8.2.3 Numerical Optimization | p. 212 |

8.2.4 Results | p. 214 |

8.3 Case Study 3: Supervisory Control Strategies for a Parallel HEV | p. 216 |

8.3.1 Introduction | p. 216 |

8.3.2 Modeling and Experimental Validation | p. 216 |

8.3.3 Control Strategies | p. 217 |

8.3.4 Results | p. 219 |

8.4 Case Study 4: Optimal Rendez-Vous Maneuvers | p. 225 |

8.4.1 Modeling and Problem Formulation | p. 226 |

8.4.2 Optimal Control for the Case of a Specified Final Distance | p. 228 |

8.4.3 Optimal Control for the Case of an Unspecified Final Distance | p. 232 |

8.5 Case Study 5: Fuel Optimal Trajectories of a Racing FCEV | p. 236 |

8.5.1 Modeling | p. 237 |

8.5.2 Optimal Control | p. 241 |

8.5.3 Results | p. 243 |

8.6 Case Study 6: Nonpredictive Optimal Control of a Series Hybrid Bus | p. 246 |

8.6.1 Modeling and Validation | p. 246 |

8.6.2 Optimal Control | p. 249 |

8.6.3 Results | p. 253 |

9 Appendix II - Optimal Control Theory | p. 257 |

9.1 Parameter Optimization Problems | p. 257 |

9.1.1 Problems Without Constraints | p. 257 |

9.1.2 Numerical Solution | p. 259 |

9.1.3 Minimization with Equality Constraints | p. 261 |

9.1.4 Minimization with Inequality Constraints | p. 264 |

9.2 Optimal Control | p. 266 |

9.2.1 Introduction | p. 266 |

9.2.2 Optimal Control for the Basic Problem | p. 266 |

9.2.3 First Integral of the Hamiltonian | p. 270 |

9.2.4 Optimal Control with Specified Final State | p. 272 |

9.2.5 Optimal Control with Unspecified Final Time | p. 273 |

9.2.6 Optimal Control with Restrictions of the Control Variable | p. 273 |

References | p. 279 |