Cover image for Technology management assessment procedure : a guide for supporting technology management in business
Title:
Technology management assessment procedure : a guide for supporting technology management in business
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Herts, UK. : Institution of Electrical Engineers, 2000
Physical Description:
2 v. (various pagings) : ill. ; 30 cm.
ISBN:
9780852967720

9780852967683
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477055-1001 Open Access Book
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30000010099187 issue.1 Non Circulating - To Check
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Summary

Summary

The book discusses homogenisation principles and mixing rules for the determination of the macroscopic dielectric and magnetic properties of different types of media. The effects of structure and anisotropy are discussed in detail, as well as mixtures involving chiral and nonlinear materials. High frequency scattering phenomena and dispersive properties are also discussed.

The book includes analysis of special phenomena that the mixing process can cause, such as the difference in character between a mixture and its constituent parts. Mixing results are applied to different materials in geophysics and biology. Reference is also made to the historical perspectives of dielectric modelling. Examples are included throughout the text.

Aimed at students with research interests in electromagnetics or materials science, the book is also useful as a textbook in universities, as a handbook of mixing principles, and as a sourcebook for composite material design.


Author Notes

Ari Sihvola is Professor of Electromagnetics at Helsinki University of Technology He is Vice-Chairman of the Finnish National Committee of URSI (International Union of Radio Science) and served as the Secretary of the 22nd European Microwave Conference, held in August 1992, in Espoo, Finland. Ari received the degrees of Diploma Engineer in 1981, Licentiate of Technology in 1984 and Doctor of Technology in 1987, all in Electrical Engineering, from the Helsinki University of Technology, Finland. Besides working for HUT and the Academy of Finland, he was visiting engineer at the Research Laboratory of Electronics of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1985-1986, and a visiting scientist at Pennsylvania State University in 1990-1991. In 1996, he was visiting scientist at Lund University, Sweden.


Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
1 Introductionp. 1
1.1 The philosophy of homogenisation of mixturesp. 1
1.2 Historical backgroundp. 5
1.3 Literaturep. 9
1.4 Outline of the bookp. 11
Referencesp. 12
I To observe the pattern: Classical and neoclassical mixingp. 17
2 Physics behind the dielectric constantp. 19
2.1 Polarisation phenomena in matterp. 19
2.2 Conduction and complex permittivityp. 23
2.2.1 Field relationsp. 23
2.2.2 Time-harmonic fieldsp. 25
2.2.3 Dispersionp. 26
2.2.4 Complex resistivityp. 28
2.3 Higher-order polarisation mechanismsp. 29
2.3.1 Anisotropy and multipole momentsp. 29
2.3.2 Magnetic polarisationp. 30
2.3.3 Other polarisation effectsp. 32
Problemsp. 35
Referencesp. 36
3 Classical mixing approachp. 39
3.1 Average fields and Maxwell Garnett rulep. 40
3.2 Polarisability of dielectric spherep. 41
3.2.1 Polarisability and dipole momentp. 41
3.2.2 Consistency of the field solutionsp. 42
3.2.3 Dipole moment as solution for the external problemp. 44
3.3 Mixture with spherical inclusionsp. 45
3.3.1 Clausius-Mossotti formulap. 45
3.3.2 Maxwell Garnett mixing rulep. 47
3.3.3 Q[subscript 2] function for mixture analysisp. 49
3.4 Discussion on basic field conceptsp. 51
3.4.1 Macroscopic and microscopic fieldsp. 52
3.4.2 Shape of the cavity in a crystalp. 55
3.4.3 The internal dipolesp. 56
3.4.4 Alternative routes to Maxwell Garnett formulap. 57
Problemsp. 58
Referencesp. 59
4 Advanced mixing principlesp. 61
4.1 Multiphase mixturesp. 61
4.2 Ellipsoidal inclusionsp. 63
4.2.1 Depolarisation factorsp. 63
4.2.2 Polarisability components of an ellipsoidp. 66
4.2.3 Aligned orientationp. 67
4.2.4 Random orientationp. 68
4.2.5 Orientation distributionp. 70
4.3 Inhomogeneous inclusionsp. 71
4.3.1 Polarisability of a layered spherep. 72
4.3.2 Continuously inhomogeneous inclusionsp. 75
4.3.3 Nonhomogeneous ellipsoidsp. 78
4.4 Lossy materialsp. 79
Problemsp. 82
Referencesp. 84
5 Anisotropic mixturesp. 85
5.1 Anisotropy in dielectric materialsp. 85
5.2 Elementary dyadic analysisp. 88
5.2.1 Notation and definitionsp. 88
5.2.2 Operations and invariantsp. 90
5.2.3 Examplesp. 93
5.3 Polarisability of anisotropic spherep. 94
5.3.1 Reinterpretation of scalar polarisabilityp. 94
5.3.2 Depolarisation and the shape effectp. 97
5.4 Mixtures with anisotropic inclusionsp. 101
5.5 Mixtures with anisotropic background mediump. 102
5.5.1 Affine transformationp. 102
5.5.2 Internal field and polarisabilityp. 103
5.5.3 Homogenisationp. 105
Problemsp. 107
Referencesp. 110
6 Chiral and bi-anisotropic mixturesp. 113
6.1 Bi-anisotropic materialsp. 113
6.1.1 Bi-anisotropic constitutive relationsp. 114
6.1.2 Dissipation and reciprocityp. 115
6.1.3 Renormalisation of field quantitiesp. 116
6.2 Six-vector algebrap. 117
6.3 Chiral mixturesp. 119
6.3.1 Chiral and bi-isotropic materialsp. 119
6.3.2 Polarisability of chiral spherep. 121
6.3.3 Chiral Maxwell Garnett mixing formulap. 122
6.3.4 Example: a racemic mixturep. 123
6.4 Bi-anisotropic mixturesp. 125
6.4.1 Polarisability of a bi-anisotropic spherep. 126
6.4.2 Bi-anisotropic mixing rulesp. 126
Problemsp. 127
Referencesp. 128
7 Nonlinear mixturesp. 131
7.1 The characterisation of nonlinearityp. 131
7.1.1 Examples of nonlinear mechanisms in matterp. 131
7.1.2 Nonlinear susceptibilitiesp. 133
7.1.3 Quadratic and cubic nonlinearitiesp. 135
7.2 Mixing rules for nonlinear materialsp. 136
7.2.1 Polarisability components for a nonlinear spherep. 136
7.2.2 Dilute mixturesp. 138
7.2.3 Towards denser mixturesp. 139
7.2.4 Nonlinearity as perturbation to permittivityp. 140
7.3 Characteristics of nonlinear mixturesp. 141
Problemsp. 142
Referencesp. 143
II To transgress the pattern: Functionalistic and modernist mixingp. 145
8 Difficulties and uncertainties in classical mixingp. 147
8.1 Weak links in the mixing rule derivationp. 148
8.1.1 Interaction between the scatterersp. 148
8.1.2 Quasi-static approximationp. 150
8.1.3 Correlation lengthp. 151
8.2 Limits for the effective permittivityp. 151
8.2.1 General boundsp. 152
8.2.2 Hashin-Shtrikman boundsp. 153
8.2.3 Higher-order boundsp. 156
8.2.4 Anisotropic boundsp. 156
Problemsp. 157
Referencesp. 158
9 Generalised mixing rulesp. 161
9.1 Bruggeman formulap. 161
9.2 Coherent potential formulap. 163
9.3 Unified mixing rulep. 164
9.3.1 Spherical inclusionsp. 164
9.3.2 Ellipsoidal inclusionsp. 164
9.4 Other mixing modelsp. 166
9.4.1 Power-law modelsp. 166
9.4.2 Differential mixing modelsp. 167
9.4.3 Periodical lattice modelsp. 168
9.4.4 Random medium modelp. 169
9.5 Chiral and bi-anisotropic mixturesp. 169
9.6 Numerical approaches for homogenisationp. 170
Problemsp. 172
Referencesp. 174
10 Towards higher frequenciesp. 177
10.1 Rayleigh scattering contributionp. 178
10.1.1 Rayleigh scattering of a single inclusionp. 178
10.1.2 Rayleigh attenuationp. 181
10.2 Mie scatteringp. 184
10.3 Scattering in random mediap. 188
10.3.1 Quasi-crystalline approximationp. 188
10.3.2 Size-dependent polarisability approachp. 189
Problemsp. 191
Referencesp. 192
11 Dispersion and time-domain analysisp. 195
11.1 Constitutive relations as operatorsp. 196
11.2 Susceptibility modelsp. 198
11.2.1 Debye modelp. 198
11.2.2 Lorentz modelp. 200
11.2.3 Drude modelp. 201
11.2.4 Modified Debye modelp. 202
11.2.5 Other susceptibility modelsp. 203
11.3 Mixing in time domainp. 203
11.3.1 Quasi-static time-domain fieldsp. 204
11.3.2 Deconvolution of kernelsp. 205
11.3.3 A mixture of two Debye materialsp. 206
11.4 Temporal dispersion in anisotropic and chiral materialsp. 208
Problemsp. 212
Referencesp. 213
12 Special phenomena caused by mixingp. 215
12.1 Dispersion of the permittivity of mixturesp. 215
12.1.1 Water and polar moleculesp. 215
12.1.2 Metals and Drude dispersionp. 218
12.2 Polarisation enhancementp. 219
12.2.1 Mossotti catastrophep. 220
12.2.2 Onsager modelp. 222
12.2.3 Single scattering and Frohlich modesp. 223
12.3 Percolationp. 226
12.3.1 Generalised mixing rulep. 226
12.3.2 Effect of spatial dimensionp. 228
Problemsp. 232
Referencesp. 232
13 Applications to natural materialsp. 235
13.1 Water and icep. 235
13.1.1 Free and bound waterp. 235
13.1.2 Icep. 237
13.2 Snowp. 239
13.2.1 Dry snowp. 239
13.2.2 Wet snowp. 242
13.3 Rocks and soilp. 244
13.3.1 Porous bedrockp. 245
13.3.2 Soilp. 247
13.4 Rain attenuationp. 249
13.5 Wood, trees, and canopiesp. 252
13.6 Biological tissuesp. 254
Problemsp. 257
Referencesp. 258
14 Concluding remarksp. 261
Appendixesp. 265
A Collection of dyadic relationsp. 265
B Collection of basic mixing rulesp. 267
Indexp. 271