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Understanding explosions
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Publication Information:
New York, NY : Center for Chemical Process Safety of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 2003


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30000010099978 TP150.S24 C76 2003 Open Access Book
30000010099982 TP150.S24 C76 2003 Open Access Book

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There are many different types of explosions, each with its owncomplex mechanism. Understanding explosions is important inpreventing them. This reference provides valuable information onexplosions for everyone involved in the operation, design,maintenance, and management of chemical processes, helping enhanceunderstanding of the nature of explosions and the practical methodsrequired to prevent them from occurring.

The text includes:

Fundamental basis for explosions Explosive and flammable behavior and characteristics ofmaterials Different types of explosions Fire and explosion hazard recognition Practical methods for preventing explosions or minimizing thepotential consequences Additional references Understanding Explosions provides a practical understandingof explosion fundamentals, including the different types ofexplosions, the explosive and flammable behavior of materials, andthe hazards related to fires and explosions. It also discussespractical methods to prevent and minimize the probability andconsequence of an explosion during routine use of flammable,combustible and/or reactive materials.

Author Notes

Daniel A. Crowl is the author of Understanding Explosions, published by Wiley.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Accident Loss History
1.2 The Accident Process (AIChE, 2000)
1.3 A Case History-Flixborough, England
1.4 Hazard Identification and Evaluation
1.5 Inherently Safer Design
Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Fires and Explosions
2.1 Gases and Vapors
2.1.1 Flammability Diagram
2.1.2 Estimating Flammability Limits
2.1.3 Temperature Effect on Flammability
2.1.4 Pressure Effect on Flammability
2.1.5 Flammability of Gaseous Mixtures
2.1.6 Minimum Ignition Energies
2.1.7 Autoignition Temperature
2.1.8 Example Applications
2.2 Liquids
2.2.1 Flashpoints of Mixtures of Liquids
2.2.2 Example Applications
2.3 Aerosols and Mists
2.4 Dusts
2.5 Hybrid Mixtures
2.6 Kinetics and Thermochemistry
2.6.1 Calculated Adiabatic Flame Temperatures (CAFT)
2.6.2 Example Application
2.7 Gas Dynamics
2.7.1 Detonations and Deflagrations
2.7.2 Estimating Peak Side-on Overpressures
2.7.3 Example Applications
2.7.4 Pressure Piling and Deflagration to Detonation Transition
2.8 Physical Explosions
2.8.1 BLEVEs
2.8.2 Rapid Phase Transition Explosions
2.9 Vapor Cloud Explosions
2.9.1 TNT Equivalency
2.9.2 TNO Multi-Energy Method
2.9.3 Baker-Strehlow-Tang Method (AIChE, 1999a)
2.9.4 Computational Fluid Mechanics (CFD) Method
2.9.5 Example Applications
2.10 Runaway Reactions
2.10.1 Steady-State and Dynamic Reactor Behavior
2.10.2 Experimental Characterization
2.11 Condensed Phase Explosions
2.12 Fireballs, Pool, Flash, and Jet Fires
2.13 Explosion Effects
2.13.1 Thermal Exposure
2.13.2 Overpressure Exposure
2.14 Ignition Sources
2.14.1 Static Electricity
Chapter 3 Prevention and Mitigation of Explosions
3.1 Additional References
3.2 Inherently Safer Design
3.3 Using the Flammability Diagram to Avoid Flammable Atmospheres
3.4 Inerting and Purging
3.4.1 Vacuum Purging
3.4.2 Pressure Purging
3.4.3 Combined Pressure-Vacuum Purging
3.4.4 Sweep Purging
3.4.5 Siphon Purging
3.4.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Various Interting Procedures
3.4.7 Inert Gas Blanketing of Storage Vessels
3.4.8 Inert Purging and Blanketing during Drumming Operations
3.5 Example Application
3.6 Explosion Venting
3.7 Grounding and Bonding
3.8 Ventilation
3.9 Sprinkler and Deluge Systems
3.10 Charging and Drumming Flammable Liquids
3.11 Example Application
3.12 Charging Powders
3.13 Electrical Equipment in Hazardous (Classified) Areas
3.13.1 Protection Techniques
Appendix A Detailed Equations for Flammability Diagrams
Part A Equations Useful for Gas Mixtures
Part B Equations Useful for Placing Vessels Into and Out of Service
Appendix B Equation for Determining the Energy of Explosion
B.1 Example Application
Appendix C Flammability Data for Selected Materials
Appendix D Procedure for Example 3.2
Appendix E Combustion Data for Dust Clouds