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Chemoton theory
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Mathematical and computational chemistry
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New York, NY : Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2003
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30000010099251 QH325 G36 2003 v.1 Open Access Book Great Book
30000010099247 QH325 G36 2003 v.2 Open Access Book Great Book

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Dr. Gànti has introduced Chemoton Theory to explain the origin of life. Theoretical Foundations of Fluid Machineries is a discussion of the theoretical foundations of fluid automata. It introduces quantitative methods - cycle stoichiometry and stoichiokinetics - in order to describe fluid automata with the methods of algebra, as well as their construction, starting from elementary chemical reactions up to the complex, program-directed, proliferating fluid automata, the chemotons.

Chemoton Theory outlines the development of a theoretical biology, based on exact quantitative considerations and the consequences of its application on biotechnology and on the artificial synthesis of living systems.

Table of Contents

I. Introductionp. 1
II. Constructional Elements of Fluid Machinesp. 9
Reaction Chainsp. 9
Chemical reactions as sections of forced trajectoriesp. 9
Coupling of chemical reactionsp. 12
Branchingsp. 18
AND-type branchingp. 18
OR-type branchingsp. 21
The Chemical Cyclep. 22
Characterization of the chemical cyclep. 22
Cycle stoichiometryp. 25
Operation rulesp. 25
Examples for the application of the rulesp. 27
Generalization of cycle stoichiometryp. 30
Kinetics of cyclesp. 31
An example for chemical cyclesp. 32
The catalytic nature of chemical cyclesp. 35
Enzyme reactionsp. 39
General considerationsp. 41
Self-Reproducing Chemical Cyclesp. 43
Simple self-reproducing cyclep. 44
Kinetics of self-reproducing cyclesp. 53
Examples of self-reproducing cyclesp. 53
Self-consuming cyclesp. 56
Storage and Replication of Informationp. 56
Template processesp. 57
Example for calculating template polymerizationp. 61
Kinetics of template polymerizationp. 63
General remarksp. 67
Compartmentalizationp. 68
Stoichiometryp. 69
Formal kinetics of membrane growthp. 70
III. Design of Simple Fluid Machinesp. 73
Coupling of Simple Partsp. 73
Coupling of chemical cycles with reaction chainsp. 73
Coupling of cycles with one anotherp. 76
Second-generation cyclesp. 84
Industrial applicationsp. 91
Coupling of Self-Reproducing Constituentsp. 97
Coupling of simple parts into self-reproducing systemsp. 97
The coupling of a self-reproducing cycle with a reaction chainp. 101
Oscillating reaction systemsp. 103
Coupling of self-reproducing cycles and template polymerization: fluid program controlp. 109
Industrial applicationsp. 114
IV. Proliferating Fluid Automatap. 121
The Forms of Genesisp. 121
Definitionsp. 122
Examplesp. 124
Proliferating Microspheresp. 127
Coupling, Stoichiometryp. 128
Operation: growth and divisionp. 130
Kineticsp. 134
Proliferating "Fluid Clockworks"p. 137
Microspheres with OR-branchingp. 137
Microsphere with an oscillating chemical systemp. 139
Proliferating "fluid clockworks"p. 141
Chemotonsp. 144
Chemoton couplingp. 147
Stoichiometryp. 148
Qualitative survey of operationp. 150
Kineticsp. 152
Computer study of operationp. 155
Chemoton variantsp. 159
V. Outlines of Self-Organizing Fluid Computersp. 163
Introductory Remarksp. 163
Constituents of Fluid Computersp. 165
Connection to the electric fieldp. 165
The I-switchp. 170
The F-switchp. 176
The C-switchp. 177
A possible way to realize the C-switchp. 180
Chemotons of limited proliferationp. 183
The Basic Networkp. 188
Design of the basic networkp. 188
Operation of the basic networkp. 191
Energy supply of the basic networkp. 193
Shape recognition by light sensitivityp. 194
Shape recognition by touchingp. 198
Coupling of the basic network to other sensorsp. 199
General remarksp. 201
Cogitator Networksp. 202
G-elementsp. 202
Networks consisting of C- and G-elementsp. 203
Basic cogitator networkp. 206
Secondary wiringp. 207
Associative networkp. 209
The "dream" of the associative networkp. 210
Design of Cogitatorsp. 211
Abstractor subunitp. 211
Decoder subunitp. 214
Simple cogitatorp. 218
The problem solving ability of the cogitatorp. 220
Cogitators with Time Coderp. 222
T-elementsp. 222
Simple fluid clockworkp. 225
Complex fluid clockworkp. 227
Cogitator with clockworkp. 228
Activity, Sleeping and Deathp. 229
Activityp. 229
Selective control of operationp. 230
Sleeping and dreamingp. 233
Toward Fluid Robotsp. 237
The cogitator as a robot brainp. 237
Fluid robotsp. 239
Referencesp. 241
Indexp. 245
VI. About the World of Living in Generalp. 251
What is Life?p. 251
The ambiguity of the concept of lifep. 251
Views concerning the essence of lifep. 254
The standpoints of some outstanding philosophersp. 259
The Most General Properties of Living Beingsp. 268
Empirical facts providing the basis for the theoryp. 268
Conclusionsp. 273
Life Criteriap. 278
Alive, capable of living, dead, nonlivingp. 278
The levels of lifep. 280
Life criteriap. 282
Chemotons as Living Systemsp. 289
Chemotons satisfy life criteriap. 289
Chemotons are minimum systems of lifep. 293
VII. Chemical Evolutionp. 297
Setting of Objectivesp. 297
The Date of the Genesis of Lifep. 298
The Genesis of Earthp. 300
The Primitive Atmospherep. 308
Chemical Evolutionp. 311
Introductionp. 311
Energy sourcep. 312
Initial compoundsp. 314
Low-molecular-weight productsp. 315
Abiotic formation of proteinoidsp. 324
Abiogenic formation of nucleic acidsp. 325
Formation of microscopic structuresp. 328
VIII. Biogenesisp. 331
Models of Biogenesisp. 331
Experimental modelsp. 331
Qualitative theoretical modelsp. 332
Quantitative theoretical modelsp. 334
Metabolic Network of a Prebiotic Chemotonp. 338
General aspectsp. 338
Autocatalytic subsystemsp. 340
Connective subsystemsp. 346
Additional pathwaysp. 351
A qualitative survey of the operation of the networkp. 354
Quantitative Description of Prebiotic Chemotonsp. 356
Strategyp. 356
Membrane synthesisp. 359
Template synthesisp. 361
Combination of the two subsystemsp. 371
Synthesis of precursorsp. 373
Self-reproducing metabolic networkp. 377
Overall equation of the prebiotic chemotonp. 378
IX. Prebiotic Evolutionp. 383
Introductionp. 383
Beginnings of Prebiotic Evolutionp. 384
Conditions of biogenesis on Earthp. 384
Spontaneous genesis of proliferating systemsp. 388
Spontaneous genesis of chemotonsp. 389
External conditions of early evolutionp. 391
The early evolution of chemotonsp. 394
Appearance of Enzyme Activityp. 396
The problem of primitive catalysisp. 396
Evolution of RNAsp. 400
Development of enzyme RNAsp. 403
The Origin of Coenzymesp. 409
General considerationsp. 409
Coenzymes are the remnants of eRNAsp. 410
The Origin of Genes and the Codep. 414
The origin of genesp. 414
The origin of RNA polymerasesp. 416
The appearance of DNAp. 419
The origin of codep. 422
Summaryp. 424
X. Exobiological Outlookp. 427
Introductory Remarksp. 427
Possibility of the Existence of Non-terrestrial Types of Lifep. 429
Non-carbon-based lifep. 429
Carbon-based life with a non-terrestrial type of metabolismp. 434
Life of non-terrestrial origin with a terrestrial metabolismp. 436
Exobiological Studies in the Solar Systemp. 437
Dry celestial bodiesp. 437
Marsp. 440
Galilean moonsp. 449
Giant planetsp. 452
XI. Outlines of a Quantitative Biologyp. 453
Introductionp. 453
Some Genetic Considerationsp. 455
Self-(re)production without genetic subsystemp. 455
Reproduction by a "technological recipe"p. 458
Hereditary properties acquired by adaptationp. 461
General structure of the genetic materialp. 464
Quantitative Treatment of a Prokaryotic Cellp. 470
Possibilities and limitationsp. 470
Stoichiometry of the minimum model of prokaryotesp. 472
The Stoichiometric Principles of Evolutionp. 479
Csanyi's general theory of evolutionp. 479
Stoichiometric principles of the evolution of prokaryotesp. 483
Evolution to eukaryotesp. 486
Evolution of eukaryotesp. 491
Applications in Biotechnologyp. 493
Limits of the prospective development of biotechnologyp. 493
One-step chemical synthesesp. 496
Chemical syntheses by reaction networksp. 498
Synthesis of Living Systemsp. 500
The objective of synthesisp. 500
Neobiogenesisp. 502
Possibility of an exact proofp. 506
Referencesp. 509
Indexp. 539