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Cover image for Error control coding for B3G/4G wireless systems : paving the way to IMT-advanced standards
Error control coding for B3G/4G wireless systems : paving the way to IMT-advanced standards
Wiley-WWRF series
Publication Information:
Chichester, West Sussex, UK ; Hoboken, NJ : Wiley, 2011
Physical Description:
xxiii, 264 p. : ill. ; 26 cm.


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Call Number
Material Type
Item Category 1
30000010253181 TK5102.96 E77 2011 Open Access Book Book

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Covering the fast evolving area of advanced coding, ErrorControl Coding for B3G/4G Wireless Systems targets IMT-Advancedsystems to present the latest findings and implementationsolutions. The book begins by detailing the fundamentals ofadvanced coding techniques such as Coding, Decoding, Design, andOptimization. It provides not only state-of-the-art researchfindings in 3D Turbo-codes, non-binary LDPC Codes, Fountain, andRaptor codes, but also insights into their real-worldimplementation by examining hardware architecture solutions, forexample VLSI complexity, FPGA, and ASIC. Furthermore, specialattention is paid to Incremental redundancy techniques, whichconstitute a key feature of Wireless Systems.

A promising application of these advanced coding techniques, theTurbo-principle (also known as iterative processing), isillustrated through an in-depth discussion of Turbo-MIMO,Turbo-Equalization, and Turbo-Interleaving techniques. Finally, thebook presents the status of major standardization activitiescurrently implementing such techniques, with special interest in3GPP UMTS, LTE, WiMAX, IEEE 802.11n, DVB-RCS, DVB-S2, and IEEE802.22. As a result, the book coherently brings together academicand industry vision by providing readers with a uniquelycomprehensive view of the whole topic, whilst also giving anunderstanding of leading-edge techniques.

Includes detailed coverage of coding, decoding, design, andoptimization approaches for advanced codes Provides up to date research findings from both highly reputedacademics and industry standpoints Presents the latest status of standardization activities forWireless Systems related to advanced coding Describes real-world implementation aspects by giving insightsinto architecture solutions for both LDPC and Turbo-codes Examines the most advanced and promising concepts ofturbo-processing applications: Turbo-MIMO, Turbo-Equalization,Turbo-Interleaving

Author Notes

Thierry Lestable received his Engg. Degree and Ph.D from theEcole Supérieure d'Electricité (Supelec) in 1997 and 2003respectively. He has more than 12 years experience in leading edgeWireless Telecommunications, is author of 40+ internationalpublications, including 2 Wiley Books, and 25+ patents. Since 2008,Dr. Lestable has been Technology & Innovation Manager atSAGEMCOM (Paris, France), in charge of Technology Strategy andRoadmap within CTO office.

Dr. Lestable is expert for the European Commission (FP7), andEureka Cluster CELTIC, whilst chairing the Machine-to-Machine (M2M)Expert Group in eMobility European Technology Platform. He is theProject Manager of FP7-BeFEMTO project targeting next generationLTE-based Femtocells, and initiated the FP7-EXALTED projectdedicated to LTE-based M2M communications. Since 2010, he has beena member of the Telecom Steering Board from System@ticCompetitiveness Cluster in France.

Within Alcatel labs (1998-2003), he investigated Multi-CarrierWireless Systems paving the way for 4G Chinese systems with FuTURE863 projects. Then, from 2004, Dr. Lestable was with SamsungElectronics Research Institute (SERI), UK, heading the AdvancedTechnology Group focusing on Advanced Channel Coding (LDPC),Iterative processing and Cross-Layer for MIMO-OFDM based systems.He actively contributed to IEEE 802.16m, and 802.20 standards,whilst participating in European research projects (FP6-WINNER),and creating FP7-DAVINCI Consortium.

Moshe Ran holds a PhD from Tel Aviv University, and hasbeen the head of research and development authority at HolonInstitute of Technology (HIT) since 2009. He has 25 yearsexperience in state of the art communications systems and has leadR&D groups in several communication topics including: broadbandaccess technologies, 3G and 4G systems, Short-range communicationswith focus on Ultra-wideband (UWB) technologies, error correctioncodes.

Dr. Ran formerly held prominent management and technicalpositions including CEO of MostlyTek Ltd. He has been an activemember in standards bodies and technology-related partnershipsincluding: IEEE802.16, ETSI/BRAN and WWRF. He was the projectmanager and coordinator of IST-FP6 STREP project named UROOF,targeting UWB over optical fibre for next generation broadbandcommunications. He is a senior member of IEEE and has publishedmore than 60 technical international publications and papers in theareas of error control coding and broadband wireless/wirelineintegration.

Table of Contents

Gerhard Bauch and Claude Berrou and David Declercq and Alexandre Graell I Amat and Youssouf Ould-Cheikh-Mouhamedou and Yannick Saouter and Jossy Sayir and Marcos B.S. TavaresMoshe Ran and Carlos De Segovia and Omer RanStefania Sesia and Charly PoulliatFrank KienleIsabelle Siaud and Ming Jiang and Anne-Marie Ulmer-Moll and Maryline Hélard and Thierry Lestable and Carlos De SegoviaMarie-Hélene Hamon and Thierry Lestable and Isabelle Siaud)
About the Editorsp. xi
Contributorsp. xiii
Prefacep. xv
Acknowledgmentsp. xvii
Abbreviationsp. xix
1 Codingp. 1
1.1 General Code Typesp. 1
1.2 Designing Codes Based on Graphsp. 7
1.3 Pseudorandom Designsp. 8
1.3.1 Pseudorandom Designs for Turbo Codesp. 8
1.3.2 Structured Designsp. 14
1.3.3 Code Optimizationp. 22
1.4 Repeat Accumulate Codesp. 25
1.5 Binary versus Nonbinaryp. 28
1.6 Performance Results of Nonbinary LDPC Codesp. 30
1.6.1 Small Codeword Lengthsp. 30
1.6.2 High-Order Modulationsp. 31
1.6.3 Brief Presentation of NB-LDPC Decodersp. 33
1.7 Three-Dimensional (3D) Turbo Codesp. 34
1.7.1 The Encoding Structurep. 35
1.7.2 Code Optimizationp. 37
1.7.3tDecoding the 3D Turbo Code

p. 42

1.7.4 Simulation Resultsp. 43
1.8 Conclusionsp. 45
Referencesp. 46
2 Decodingp. 49
2.1 Algebraic Soft-Decision (ASD) and Reliability-Based Decodersp. 50
2.1.1 Reliability-Based Soft-Decision Decodingp. 51
2.1.2 Adaptive Iterative Soft-Decision Decoders for Short Packet Lengthsp. 54
2.1.3 Algebraic Soft-Decision and Reed-Solomon Codesp. 61
2.2 Graph versus Trellis Decoding Algorithmsp. 63
2.2.1 BP-Based Algorithms
2.2.2 BCJR-Based Algorithmsp. 64
Referencesp. 65
3 Incremental Redundancy for Codingp. 69
3.1 Introductionp. 69
3.2 Retransmission Protocols (ARQ)p. 70
3.2.1 Stop-and-Wait ARQ Protocolp. 70
3.2.2 Go-Back-N ARQ Protocolp. 73
3.2.3 Selective Repeat (SR) ARQ Protocolp. 74
3.2.4 Summary, and Challengesp. 75
3.3 HARQ Schemesp. 76
3.3.1 Type I HARQp. 76
3.3.2 Type II HARQp. 78
3.3.3 Comparison in Terms of Buffer Requirementsp. 80
3.4 Design of Hybrid ARQ Type IIp. 81
3.4.1 Mathematical System Modelp. 81
3.4.2 Throughput Analysisp. 83
3 5 Code Designp. 86
3.5.1 Rate-Compatible Punctured (RCP) Convolutional Codesp. 88
3.5.2 Rate-Compatible Punctured Turbo Codesp. 89
3.5.3 Fountain and Raptor Codesp. 90
3 5.4 Low-Density Parity-Check Codesp. 96
3.6 Generalization of the Mutual Information Evolution for Incremental Redundancy Protocolsp. 99
3.6.1 Complexity for Iterative Decoding Schemes in the Context of Incremental Redundancy Protocolsp. 101
3.7 ARQ/HARQ in the Standardsp. 102
3.7.7 Retransmission Protocols in 3GPP Standardp. 103
3.7.2 Retransmission Protocols in Non-3GPP Standardp. 106
3.8 Conclusionsp. 107
Referencesp. 107
4 Architecture and Hardware Requirementsp. 113
4.1 Turbo Decoder Implementationp. 113
4.1.1 Interleaver and Deinterleaverp. 114
4.1.2 Serial Turbo Decodingp. 115
4.1.3 Parallel and Shuffled Turbo Decodingp. 117
4.1.4 Turbo Decoding with Parallel Component Decoderp. 117
4.1.5 MAP Decoderp. 119
4.1.6 Branch Metric Calculationp. 124
4.1.7 State and Path Metricsp. 127
4.1.8 Duobinary Codesp. 137
4.1.9 Quantizationp. 139
4.1.10 Normalizationp. 141
4.1.11 Implementation Resultsp. 145
4.2 LDPC Decoder Architecturesp. 146
4.2.1 Generic Architecture Templatep. 146
4.2.2 Two-Phase Architecturep. 149
4.2.3 Two-Phase Architecture with PN Branchp. 151
4.2.4 Single-Phase Architecturep. 151
4.2.5 Layered Architecturep. 153
4.2.6 Other Architecture Conceptsp. 154
4.2.7 Considering Throughput and Latencyp. 155
4.2.8 Considering VLSI Complexityp. 159
4.2.9 Considering Communications Performancep. 160
4.2.10 The LDPC Code Decoder Design Spacep. 161
4.2.11 Architecture Parallelismp. 167
4.2.12 Traveling the Design Spacep. 169
4.2.13 Implementation Issuesp. 170
4.2.14 FPGA Implementationp. 172
4.2.15 ASIC Implementationp. 172
4.2.16 Power and Energy Issuesp. 173
4.2.17 Design Studiesp. 177
Referencesp. 185
5 Turbo-Principle Extensionsp. 189
5.1 Introductionp. 189
5.2 From Turbo Code to Advanced Iterative Receiversp. 191
5.2.1 From Turbo Code to Turbo Equalizationp. 191
5.2.2 Turbo-Equalization Principlep. 194
5.2.3 Turbo Equalization Applied to Iterative Receiverp. 196
5.3 Turbo-Based Interleaving Techniquesp. 197
5.3.1 General Principles of the Algorithmp. 199
5.3.2 Mathematical Descriptionp. 205
5.3.3 Performance as Inner Interleaving to Turbo-FEC Structurep. 207
5.3.4 Performance as Outer Binary Interleavingp. 210
5.5.5 Performance as Dynamic Subcarrier Mapping Allocationp. 214
5.4 Turbo-MIMO Techniquesp. 218
5.4.7 Introductionp. 218
5.4.2 System Overviewp. 219
5.4.3 Genetically Inspired Optimizationp. 220
5.4.4 Turbo MIMO-OFDM Receiver using GA-Aided Iterative Channel Estimationp. 222
5.4.5 Simulation Resultsp. 225
5.5 Conclusionsp. 236
Referencesp. 237
6 Standardizationp. 241
6.1 3GPP Systems: UMTS and LTEp. 241
6.2 IEEE 802.16/WiMAXp. 242
6.3 IEEE802.11np. 245
6.4 Satellite (DVB-RCS, DVB-S2)p. 246
6.5 Wireless Rural Area Network: The IEEE802.22 standard [IEEE802_22]p. 248
6.5.1 FEC Codingp. 250
6.5.2 Outing Interleavingp. 252
6.6 Othersp. 254
Referencesp. 254
Indexp. 257
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