Cover image for Aviation security engineering : a holistic approach
Title:
Aviation security engineering : a holistic approach
Personal Author:
Series:
Artech House intelligence and information operations series
Publication Information:
Boston : Artech House, c2011
Physical Description:
xxiii, 333 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
ISBN:
9781608070725

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30000010280634 TL725.3.S44 K65 2011 Open Access Book Book
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Summary

Summary

A resource that provides professionals with an introduction to aviation system security. It enables practitioners to understand the challenges the industry faces and how they are being addressed.


Author Notes

Rainer Klle is an ATM security expert at EUROCONTROL in Brussels, Belgium. A Ph.D. candidate at the University of Lancaster, Mr. Klle holds a master's degree in electrical engineering from the University of the Federal Armed Forces in Hamburg, Germany. He has written over 40 papers, articles, and research reports on all aspects of security of air navigation and aviation security incident management.
Garik Markarian is the chair in Communications Systems at Lancaster University. He is one of the world's leading scientists specializing in the area of wireless broadband communications. He has coauthored over 200 publications, including four books, numerous journal articles, and over 40 patents.
Alex Tarter works for Ultra Electronics in London, specializing in UAV and aviation security projects. He has prepared over 50 reports on various aspects of aviation security and situational awareness for industry and the UK MoD, and has written over 10 papers in peer-reviewed journals. He holds a master's degree in engineering from Imperial College London and a Ph.D. in communications systems from Lancaster University.


Table of Contents

Prefacep. xv
Forewordsp. xix
I Security and Aviationp. 1
Chapter 1 Aviation Security Engineeringp. 3
1.1 Introductionp. 3
1.2 What is Security?p. 4
1.2.1 Security as a Statep. 5
1.2.2 Security as a Processp. 5
1.2.3 Security as a Trade-Offp. 6
1.2.4 Security Risk Based Approach and Utility Theoryp. 7
1.2.5 Summaryp. 9
1.3 Aviation-Aviation Securityp. 9
1.3.1 Aviation-A Complex Supply Chainp. 9
1.3.2 Aviation Securityp. 11
1.4 An Emerging Disciplinep. 13
1.4.1 Aviation Security Engineering-An Emerging Disciplinep. 13
1.4.2 Paradigm Changesp. 13
1.4.3 Overt Approachp. 14
1.4.4 ôFighting-The-Last-Warö Phenomenonp. 16
1.5 Conclusionsp. 17
Questionsp. 19
Referencesp. 20
Chapter 2 Security: An Introduction and Tutorialp. 21
2.1 Introductionp. 21
2.1.1 An Examplep. 22
2.2 What is Security?p. 23
2.3 Terminologyp. 24
2.3.1 Asset-Centric Versus Attacker-Centricp. 25
2.3.2 Fundamental Concepts and Definitionsp. 26
2.4 Security Risk Managementp. 28
2.4.1 Risk Management Cyclep. 29
2.4.2 Residual Risk and Risk Appetitep. 31
2.4.3 Undertaking Security Risk Managementp. 31
2.5 Controls and Control Philosophiesp. 33
2.5.1 Incident Response Cyclep. 35
2.6 Security Meets Reality-Trustp. 36
2.7 Aviation Securityp. 37
2.7.1 Annex 17p. 37
2.7.2 The Evolving Nature of Aviation Securityp. 38
2.7.3 Aviation Information Assetsp. 39
2.7.4 Who Is In Charge of Aviation Security?p. 40
2.8 Holistic Security Approachp. 43
2.9 Relevant Standardsp. 44
2.9.1 ICAO Annex 17p. 45
2.9.2 ARINC Report 811p. 45
2.9.3 ED-200p. 46
2.9.4 SC-216p. 46
2.9.5 NIST SP-800 and ISO 27000 Seriesp. 47
2.10 Conclusionsp. 47
Questionsp. 49
Referencesp. 50
Chapter 3 Aviation as a System: Air Transportation Systemp. 51
3.1 Introductionp. 51
3.2 Aviation Terminologyp. 52
3.3 High-Level View on Air Transportationp. 54
3.3.1 Transportation Systemsp. 54
3.3.2 Air Transportation-Multiple Stakeholders and Multiple Objectivesp. 56
3.3.3 Growth and Challengesp. 56
3.4 Air Transportation System Modelp. 59
3.4.1 System and Systems Theoryp. 59
3.4.2 System Terminologyp. 60
3.4.3 System Modelp. 63
3.5 System-of-Systems-Air Transportation Subsystemsp. 64
3.5.1 Airport Subsystemp. 68
3.5.2 Aircraft Subsystem-Airspace User Operationsp. 68
3.5.3 Air Traffic Management/Communication, Navigation, and Surveillance Subsystemp. 75
3.5.4 Airspace/Network Subsystemp. 78
3.6 Performance Framework-Security Performancep. 81
3.7 Conclusionsp. 84
Questionsp. 85
Referencesp. 86
II Where We Stand Todayp. 87
Chapter 4 Traditional Approach to Aviation Securityp. 91
4.1 Introductionp. 91
4.2 Understanding Today-By Looking Backp. 92
4.2.1 Historic Overview of Aviation Securityp. 92
4.2.2 Attack Methods and Threat Conditionsp. 93
4.3 Where Are We Today-Responses to Defining Momentsp. 98
4.3.1 Incremental Changep. 98
4.3.2 International Coordinationp. 99
4.3.3 Reactive Naturep. 103
4.4 Today's Paradigm-Layered Approach-Focus on Preventionp. 104
4.4.1 Layered Securityp. 104
4.4.2 Example Approachp. 106
4.4.3 Today's Approach and Focusp. 108
4.4.4 A Growing Concern-Air Cargop. 110
4.4.5 Summaryp. 111
4.5 Lessons Learned From 9/11-Paradigm Shift-Prevention Can Failp. 112
4.6 Emerging Concernsp. 113
4.6.1 Attacks Against Airportsp. 113
4.6.2 Attacks Against CNS Infrastructuresp. 114
4.6.3 The Next Challenge-Cyber Securityp. 115
4.7 Conclusionsp. 116
Questionsp. 118
Referencesp. 119
Chapter 5 Aviation Regulations and Standardsp. 121
5.1 Introductionp. 121
5.2 Aviation and Regulationp. 123
5.2.1 Total Aviation Systemp. 123
5.2.2 Principles of Administrative Law-Laws and Regulationp. 125
5.2.3 Summary of Principles of Aviation Regulationp. 126
5.3 International Air Law and National Regulationp. 126
5.3.1 Chicago Convention-Source of International Air Lawp. 126
5.3.2 Principles of Air Lawp. 128
5.3.3 National Regulationp. 130
5.3.4 Summaryp. 130
5.4 Interface Between Regulation and Industry Standardsp. 131
5.4.1 Hard Law and Soft Lawp. 131
5.4.2 Industry Standardsp. 133
5.4.3 System Engineering Approach to Certification and Operationp. 136
5.5 Notable Rules and Actorsp. 138
5.5.1 International Level-ICAO-SARPsp. 139
5.5.2 Regional Level-European Unionp. 141
5.5.3 Regional/National Level-United States of Americap. 145
5.5.4 Standards Level-Use Casep. 146
5.6 New Challenges-Industry Standardsp. 149
5.6.1 Aviation Undergoing a Transformationp. 149
5.6.2 Industry Responses to Emerging Security Needsp. 151
5.7 Conclusionsp. 155
Questionsp. 157
Referencesp. 158
Chapter 6 Implementing Security Controlsp. 159
6.1 Introductionp. 159
6.2 Implementing Security Versus Safetyp. 161
6.3 Security Certificationp. 163
6.4 A Lifecycle Approach to Securityp. 166
6.5 Effective Incident Responsep. 169
6.6 Groundworthinessp. 172
6.7 Formalized Trust Modelsp. 173
6.8 Security Automationp. 175
6.9 Conclusionsp. 177
Questionsp. 179
Referencesp. 180
III Moving Forwardp. 181
Chapter 7 Reaction to Threats: Time-Critical Decision-Making and Natural Decision-Makingp. 185
7.1 Introductionp. 185
7.2 Decision-Making-TCDM Versus DMp. 186
7.3 NDM and RPD-Solving Known Problemsp. 190
7.4 Issues and Limitationsp. 193
7.5 Operational Issuesp. 196
7.6 Solution in an Aeronautical Environmentp. 201
7.7 Summary and Conclusionsp. 205
Questionsp. 207
Referencesp. 208
Chapter 8 Aircraft Securityp. 209
8.1 Introductionp. 209
8.2 The Problem of Aircraft Securityp. 210
8.3 Ground Attacksp. 212
8.4 The Use of Imageryp. 213
8.5 Preventing Attacks by Crewp. 218
8.6 Preventing Passenger Attacksp. 225
8.7 Conclusionsp. 230
Questionsp. 232
Referencesp. 233
Chapter 9 Airport Securityp. 235
9.1 Introductionp. 235
9.2 Current Concernsp. 237
9.3 Current Approachesp. 240
9.4 Solutionsp. 241
9.4.1 Overviewp. 241
9.4.2 Landside-Terminal Securityp. 243
9.4.3 Behavior Assessmentp. 245
9.4.4 Profilesp. 247
9.4.5 Screeningp. 250
9.5 Airside-Supply Chain Considerationsp. 252
9.6 Airside Operations Considerationsp. 253
9.7 Conclusionsp. 255
Questionsp. 257
Referencesp. 258
Chapter 10 Communication, Navigation, and Surveillance Systemp. 259
10.1 Introductionp. 259
10.2 Communication, Navigation, and Surveillance Subsystemsp. 262
10.2.1 Navigationp. 262
10.2.2 Surveillancep. 263
10.2.3 Communicationp. 265
10.2.4 Aeronautical Telecommunication Networkp. 267
10.3 Future of CNSp. 268
10.3.1 SESAR/NextGen-SWIM System-Wide Information Managementp. 271
10.3.2 Summaryp. 273
10.4 Attack Spacesp. 274
10.4.1 Physical Attacksp. 275
10.4.2 Electromagnetic Attacksp. 279
10.4.3 Data-Level Attacksp. 279
10.5 The CNS System in Response to an Attackp. 287
10.5.1 SWIM Integrationp. 289
10.5.2 Transponder Utilizationp. 290
10.5.3 Research Projectsp. 291
10.6 Conclusionsp. 292
Questionsp. 294
Referencesp. 295
Chapter 11 Airspace Securityp. 297
11.1 Introductionp. 297
11.2 State Authority-Homeland Security and National Defensep. 298
11.2.1 Sovereignty-Aviation Securityp. 298
11.2.2 Homeland Security and National Defensep. 299
11.2.3 Summaryp. 300
11.3 Problem-Securing the Airspacep. 300
11.4 Interceptionp. 301
11.5 Ground Interventionsp. 303
11.6 Recent Researchp. 305
11.7 Conclusionsp. 306
Questionsp. 307
Referencesp. 308
Chapter 12 Conclusions: Holistic Approach to Aviation Securityp. 309
12.1 Introductionp. 309
12.2 Stepping Stonesp. 310
12.2.1 Part I-Security and Aviationp. 310
12.2.2 Part II-Where We Stand Todayp. 311
12.2.3 Part III-Moving Forwardp. 312
12.3 Aviation Security Engineeringp. 313
12.3.1 Paradigm Shift-Holistic Approachp. 314
12.3.2 Engineering Practical Solutionsp. 315
12.4 Final Words-Are We Going in the Right Direction?p. 318
About the Authorsp. 321
Indexp. 323