Cover image for Polymer and polymer-hybrid nanoparticles : from  synthesis to biomedical applications
Polymer and polymer-hybrid nanoparticles : from synthesis to biomedical applications
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Publication Information:
Boca Raton : Taylor & Francis, 2014
Physical Description:
xvi, 483 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.


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30000010328092 R857.P6 R36 2014 Open Access Book Book

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Polymeric and hybrid nanoparticles have received increased scientific interest in terms of basic research as well as commercial applications, promising a variety of uses for nanostructures in fields including bionanotechnology and medicine. Condensing the relevant research into a comprehensive reference, Polymer and Polymer-Hybrid Nanoparticles: From Synthesis to Biomedical Applications covers an array of topics from synthetic procedures and macromolecular design to possible biomedical applications of nanoparticles and materials based on original and unique polymers.

The book presents a well-rounded picture of objects ranging from simple polymeric micelles to complex hybrid polymer-based nanostructures, detailing synthetic procedures, techniques for characterization and analysis, properties, and behavior in selective solvents and dispersions. Each chapter contains background and introductory information, summarizing generalities on the nanosystems being discussed. The chapters also describe representative works of experts and provide in-depth, focused discussions.

The authors present current knowledge on the following topics:

Designed synthesis of functional polymers Construction of block copolymer micellar and nonmicellar self-assembled structures Construction of organic¿organic hybrid nanosized particles Construction of organic¿inorganic hybrid nanoparticles and nanoassemblies

The final chapter addresses biological applications of polymeric nanoparticles, including delivery of low-molecular-weight drugs, macromolecular drugs, imaging and diagnostics, and photodynamic therapy. Summarizing important developments in the field, the authors condense relevant research into a comprehensive resource.

Author Notes

Stanislav Rangelov, Ph.D., has served as an associate professor at the Institute of Polymers, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, since 2005 and as a full professor since 2011. Presently, he serves as head of the Laboratory of Polymerization Processes and chair of the Scientific Council of the Institute of Polymers. His research interests include controlled polymerization processes, self-assembly of amphiphilic copolymers, and polymer and polymer¿hybrid nanosized particles.

Stergios Pispas, Ph.D. , has served as a senior researcher at the Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute of the National Hellenic Research Foundation (TPCI-NHRF), Athens, Greece, since 2009. He also served as editor of the European Physical Journal E (2003¿2012). Dr. Pispas received the American Institute of Chemists Foundation Award (1995) and the ACS A. K. Doolittle Award (2003). His current research focuses on the synthesis of functional block copolymers and polyelectrolytes, as well as the study of complex, self-organized, "hybrid" nanosystems based on polymers and surfactants, biomacromolecules, and inorganic nanomaterials.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
Authorsp. xiii
List of Abbreviationsp. xv
Chapter 1 Polymer Synthesisp. 1
1.1 Introductionp. 1
1.2 Generalities on Living/Controlled Polymerizationsp. 2
1.2.1 Anionic Polymerizationp. 2
1.2.2 Cationic Polymerizationp. 4
1.2.3 Controlled Free-Radical Polymerizationp. 6
1.2.4 Group Transfer Polymerizationp. 7
1.2.5 Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerizationp. 8
1.2.6 Other Ring-Opening Polymerization Schemesp. 8
1.3 Block Copolymersp. 9
1.3.1 General Synthetic Strategies Leading to Block Copolymersp. 12
1.3.2 Examples from Syntheses of Block Copolymersp. 14 Linear Block Copolymers by Sequential Controlled Monomer Polymerizationp. 14 Other Synthetic Schemes for the Synthesis of Linear Block Copolymersp. 28 Nonlinear Block Copolymersp. 34 Postpolymerization Functionalization of Block Copolymersp. 48
1.4 Heterogeneous Polymerization Techniques for Polymeric Nanoparticle Synthesisp. 54
Referencesp. 60
Chapter 2 Polymeric Nanoparticles from Pure Block Copolymersp. 67
2.1 General Aspects of Copolymer Self-Assemblyp. 67
2.1.1 Complex Phase Behavior of Low-Molecular-Weight Amphiphilic Moleculesp. 67
2.1.2 Driving Forces, Critical Concentrations, Thermodynamics, and Kinetics of Self-Assembly of Low-Molecular-Weight Surfactantsp. 70
2.1.3 Generalities, Common Features, and Differences in the Self-Assembly of Amphiphilic Copolymersp. 76 Generalitiesp. 76 Critical Concentrations and Temperaturesp. 77 Aggregate Evolution and Micellization Kineticsp. 79 Computer Simulation and Modeling, Scaling and Mean-Field Theories, and Mathematical Approaches to Copolymer Self-Assemblyp. 80 Summary and Conclusionsp. 84
2.2 Self-Assembled Polymeric Aggregates: From Micelles to Vesicles and More Complex Structuresp. 86
2.2.1 Spherical Micellesp. 86 General Featuresp. 86 Chain Architecture and Nature of Constituent Blocks of Spherical Micelle-Forming Copolymersp. 92
2.2.2 Wormlike Aggregatesp. 129 General Featuresp. 129 Copolymer Chain Architecture, Nature of the Constituent Blocks, and Properties of the Resulting Wormsp. 130 Toroidal Micellesp. 148
2.2.3 Polymer Vesicles (Polymersomes)p. 151 Definition, Structure, Morphology, and Dimensionsp. 152 Copolymer Chain Architecture and Constituent Blocksp. 161 Methods for Preparationp. 179 Polymersome Physical and Mechanical Propertiesp. 184
2.2.4 Other Morphologiesp. 187 Multicompartment Micellesp. 187 Disklike Micellesp. 195 Bicontinuous Micellesp. 201
Referencesp. 206
Chapter 3 Organic-Organic Hybrid Nanoassembliesp. 219
3.1 Introductory Notesp. 219
3.2 Polymer-Surfactant Hybrid Structuresp. 220
3.3 Polymer-Lipid Hybrid Structuresp. 231
3.4 Polymer-Polymer Hybrid Structuresp. 250
3.5 Hybrid Structures Formed upon Interaction of Polymers with Proteins and Peptidesp. 268
3.6 Hybrid Structures Formed upon Interactions of Polymers with Oligo- and Polynucleotidesp. 275
Referencesp. 292
Chapter 4 Hybrid Polymeric Nanoparticles Containing Inorganic Nanostructuresp. 303
4.1 Introductionp. 303
4.2 Some General Features of Inorganic Nanoparticlesp. 303
4.3 Polymers as Ligands for Nanoparticle Formation and Stabilizationp. 306
4.4 Synthesis of Inorganic Nanoparticles in Block Copolymer Micelles and Other Polymeric Nanostructures in Solutionsp. 309
4.5 Hybrid Nanostructures from Preformed Inorganic Nanoparticles and Block Copolymersp. 322
4.6 Hybrid Polymersomesp. 325
4.7 Surface-Modified Inorganic Nanoparticles by Grafted Polymer Chainsp. 331
4.8 Hybrid Polymeric Nanoparticles via (Mini)Emulsion Polymerizationp. 341
4.9 Hybrid Nanoparticles by LbL Approaches and Hybrid Polymeric (Polyelectrolyte) Nanocapsulesp. 352
4.10 Hybrid Nanoparticles Incorporating Block Copolymers and Carbon Nanomaterialsp. 357
Referencesp. 361
Chapter 5 Biological Applications of Polymeric Nanoparticlesp. 369
5.1 Delivery of Low-Molecular-Weight Drugsp. 369
5.2 Delivery of Macromolecular Drugsp. 389
5.2.1 Gene Deliveryp. 389 Biological Barriers to Gene Deliveryp. 389 Polymer-Based Nonviral Gene Carriersp. 394
5.2.2 Delivery and Encapsulation of Proteins and Enzymes: Enzymatic Nanoreactorsp. 426
5.3 Applications in Imaging and Diagnosticsp. 435
5.4 Polymeric Nanoparticles for Photodynamic Therapyp. 443
5.5 Multifunctional Polymeric Nanoparticlesp. 446
Referencesp. 457
Indexp. 467