Cover image for Ion beam treatment of polymers : application aspects from medicine to space
Title:
Ion beam treatment of polymers : application aspects from medicine to space
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Edition:
2nd ed.
Publication Information:
Waltham, MA: Elsevier, 2015
Physical Description:
vi, 259 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
ISBN:
9780080994451
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30000010343095 TP1087 K66 2015 Open Access Book Book
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Summary

Summary

Ion Beam Treatment of Polymers, Second Edition presents the results of polymer investigations and technique development in the field of polymer modification by high-energy ion beams. It shows how to use ion beam equipment in the polymer industry, as well as how to use it to produce new polymer materials. The authors, scientists and researchers active in the field, provide analysis and data from their work, and give an overview of related work by others. The authors focus on wetting, adhesion, hardness, chemical activity, environmental stability, biocompatibility, new synthesis methods, and space flight construction.

The technologies of material modification by a beam of high energy ions have wide applications in different fields, from microelectronics to medicine. Historically, ion beam treatment of polymers had fewer applications due to high costs of ion beam equipment and low costs of polymer materials. The modern development of new pulse sources with a high current density and wide ion beams increase the effectiveness of ion beam technology for polymers.


Table of Contents

Introductionp. vii
1 Interactions of ion beams with polymers: the physical picturep. 1
Referencesp. 8
2 Ion implantersp. 9
Development of ion implantersp. 9
Sheath dynamics in plasma immersion ion implantationp. 13
Plasma immersion ion implantation of insulatorsp. 15
Estimating fluence and practical process considerationsp. 20
Referencesp. 26
3 Interactions of energetic ions with polymers: chemical picturep. 29
Referencesp. 53
4 Structure of polymers after ion beam treatmentp. 69
Color changesp. 69
Darkening as a measure of fluencep. 72
Carbonization of the surface layerp. 75
Raman spectroscopy analysis of the modified layerp. 79
Electron spin resonance spectroscopy analysis of structural changesp. 86
Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of structural changesp. 91
Changes in surface energyp. 107
X-ray photoemission spectroscopy analysis of structural changesp. 108
X-ray diffraction for crystalline fractionsp. 112
Analysis of cross-linking by gel-fraction measurementsp. 113
Effects of structural changes on mechanical propertiesp. 121
Summaryp. 125
Referencesp. 127
5 Wettingp. 129
Wettability and surface energy: theory and measurementp. 129
Modification of wettability of polymers using ion implantationp. 131
Applications and relevant theoretical aspects of surface wettingp. 139
Referencesp. 142
6 Adhesionp. 145
Referencesp. 160
7 Hardnessp. 161
Applications of polymers benefit from improved surface hardnessp. 161
Mechanisms for hardness improvement by ion implantationp. 162
Referencesp. 172
8 Ion beam synthesisp. 175
Referencesp. 183
9 Biological and medical applicationsp. 185
Referencesp. 215
10 Protection in an aggressive environmentp. 217
Referencesp. 229
11 Polymerization of liquid polymer matrix in free-space environmentp. 231
Vacuump. 232
Space plasmap. 233
Temperature variationsp. 234
Microgravityp. 235
Meteorite fluencyp. 235
Referencesp. 255