Cover image for Using statistics in small-scale language education research : focus on non-parametric data
Using statistics in small-scale language education research : focus on non-parametric data
Personal Author:
ESL & Applied Linguistics Professional series
Publication Information:
New York : Routledge, 2014
Physical Description:
viii, 344 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm.


Item Barcode
Call Number
Material Type
Item Category 1
30000010337332 P138.5 T87 2014 Open Access Book Book

On Order



Assuming no familiarity with statistical methods, this text for language education research methods and statistics coursesnbsp; provides detailed guidance and instruction on principles of designing, conducting, interpreting, reading, and evaluating statistical research done in classroom settings or with a small number of participants. While three different types of statistics are addressed (descriptive, parametric, non-parametric) the emphasis is on non-parametric statistics because they are appropriate when the number of participants is small and the conditions for use of parametric statistics are not satisfied. The emphasis on non-parametric statistics is unique and complements the growing interest among second and foreign language educators in doing statistical research in classrooms. Designed to help students and other language education researchers to identify and use analyses that are appropriate for their studies, taking into account the number of participants and the shape of the data distribution, the text includes sample studies to illustrate the important points in each chapter and exercises to promote understanding of the concepts and the development of practical research skills. Mathematical operations are explained in detail, and step-by-step illustrations in the use of R (a very powerful, online, freeware program) to perform all calculations are provided.

A Companion Website extends and enhances the text with PowerPoint presentations illustrating how to carry out calculations and use R; practice exercises with answer keys; data sets in Excel MS-DOS format; and quiz, midterm, and final problems with answer keys.

Author Notes

Jean L. Turner is Professor, TESOL/TFL Program, Monterey Institute of International Studies, USA.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
Acknowledgmentsp. xiii
Section I Foundationsp. 1
1 What Is Research?p. 3
2 Defining and Describing Variablesp. 15
3 Designing Sound Research-Variable Roles, Threats to Validity, and Research Designp. 63
4 How Are Research Questions Formed and What Are the Parts of Well-Written Research Reports?p. 91
5 What Is Logical About Statistical Logic and What Purposes Does It Serve?p. 99
Section II Analyzing Differences Between Two Sets of Datap. 121
6 The Parametric t-Test Statisticsp. 123
7 The Non-parametric Wilcoxon Rank Sum and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Statisticsp. 165
Section III Analyzing Differences Among More Than Two Sets of Datap. 219
8 Introduction to the Parametric Between-Groups Analysis of Variance Statisticp. 221
9 The Non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman's Test Statisticsp. 243
Section IV Analyzing Patterns Within a Variable and Between Two Variablesp. 273
10 The Parametric Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Coefficient Statisticp. 275
11 The Non-parametric Spearman's rho and Kendall's tau Statisticsp. 300
12 The Non-parametric Chi-Squared Statisticsp. 313
Referencesp. 335
Indexp. 339