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Cover image for The electric car : development and future of battery, hybrid, and fuel-cell cars
Title:
The electric car : development and future of battery, hybrid, and fuel-cell cars
Series:
IEE power & energy series; 38
Publication Information:
London : Institution Electrical Engineers, 2001
ISBN:
9780852960134

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30000010098351 TL220 W474 2001 Open Access Book
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30000010205357 TL220 W474 2001 Open Access Book
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Summary

Summary

This book covers the development of electric cars from their early days to pure electric, fuel-cell and new hybrid models in production. It covers the latest technological issues faced by automotive engineers working on electric cars, including charging, infrastructure, safety and costs, as well as making predictions about future developments and vehicle numbers. Considerable work has gone into electric car and battery development in the last ten years, with the prospect of substantial improvements in range and performance in battery cars as well as in hybrids and those using fuel cells. The book comprehensively covers this important subject and will be of particular interest to engineers working on electric vehicle design, development and use, as well as managers interested in the key business factors vital for the successful transfer of electric cars into the mass market.


Author Notes

Mike Westbrook recently retired as Manager of Technological Research with Ford Motor Company at Dunton, Essex, after 33 years in the automotive industry


Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
Acknowledgementsp. xi
Glossaryp. xv
1 Introductionp. 1
2 The history of electric cars up to 1990p. 6
2.1 The early daysp. 6
2.2 The first road vehiclesp. 9
2.3 Competition for speed and reliabilityp. 11
2.4 Electric vehicles compete with steam and gasolinep. 15
2.5 The golden agep. 16
2.6 Cost problems for electric drivep. 19
2.7 The dark ages (1925-1960)p. 19
2.8 The modern erap. 20
2.8.1 The 1960sp. 20
2.8.2 The 1970sp. 24
2.8.3 The 1980sp. 25
General Referencesp. 28
3 Propulsion methodsp. 29
3.1 DC motorsp. 29
3.1.1 Series-wound motorsp. 31
3.1.2 Shunt-wound motorsp. 33
3.1.3 Compound-wound motorsp. 33
3.1.4 Separately excited motorsp. 33
3.2 AC motorsp. 34
3.2.1 Induction motorsp. 35
3.2.2 Synchronous motorsp. 37
3.2.3 The brushless DC motorp. 39
3.2.4 Switched reluctance motorsp. 40
3.3 Motor coolingp. 43
3.4 Transmission systemsp. 44
Referencesp. 47
General Referencesp. 47
4 Controls and power electronicsp. 48
4.1 Electronic energy managementp. 49
4.2 Power electronicsp. 52
4.3 Power switching devicesp. 54
4.3.1 The bipolar Darlingtonp. 55
4.3.2 The thyristorp. 56
4.3.3 The gate turn-off thyristor (GTO)p. 57
4.3.4 The MOS-controlled thyristor (MCT)p. 58
4.3.5 The MOSFETp. 58
4.3.6 The insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT)p. 59
4.4 Semiconductor coolingp. 60
4.5 Capacitorsp. 62
4.6 Current measurementp. 63
Referencesp. 64
5 Energy sources 1--Storage batteriesp. 65
5.1 Lead-acidp. 69
5.2 Advanced lead-acidp. 70
5.3 Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA)p. 71
5.4 Metal foil lead-acidp. 74
5.5 Nickel-ironp. 75
5.6 Nickel-zincp. 76
5.7 Nickel-cadmiump. 77
5.8 Nickel-metal hydridep. 78
5.9 Sodium-sulphurp. 79
5.10 Sodium-nickel chloridep. 80
5.11 Lithium-iron sulphidep. 81
5.12 Lithium-solid polymerp. 82
5.13 Lithium-ionp. 83
5.14 Aluminium-air and zinc-airp. 84
5.15 Batteries for hybrid vehiclesp. 85
5.16 Summary--storage batteriesp. 86
Referencesp. 86
6 Energy sources 2--Other technologiesp. 88
6.1 The supercapacitorp. 88
6.2 Fuel-cellsp. 89
6.3 Solar cellsp. 92
6.4 The flywheelp. 93
6.5 The hydraulic accumulatorp. 96
6.6 Compressed-air storagep. 97
6.7 Thermal energy storagep. 97
6.8 Summary--non-battery energy sourcesp. 97
Referencesp. 98
7 Chargingp. 99
7.1 Early systemsp. 99
7.2 Charging techniques for modern lead-acid batteriesp. 101
7.3 Charging techniques for nickel-based batteriesp. 105
7.4 Charging techniques for non-aqueous batteriesp. 107
7.5 Battery state-of-charge measurementp. 107
7.6 Battery managementp. 109
7.7 Connection methodsp. 111
7.8 Battery exchangep. 115
7.9 Infrastructure implicationsp. 116
7.10 Recharging/refuelling of other power storage devicesp. 118
Referencesp. 119
8 Vehicle design and safetyp. 121
8.1 Effect of battery weight and volumep. 121
8.2 Designing for minimum weightp. 122
8.3 Safety of batteriesp. 123
8.4 Safety of alternative energy generating and storage systemsp. 125
8.5 Battery disposal and recyclingp. 126
8.6 Safety of other electrical systemsp. 126
8.7 General design and safety issuesp. 127
8.7.1 Heating and air-conditioningp. 127
8.7.2 Auxiliary power subsystemp. 128
8.7.3 Braking, suspension and wheel systemsp. 128
8.7.4 Rolling resistancep. 129
Referencesp. 131
9 Battery electric carsp. 132
9.1 Production electric carsp. 132
9.1.1 The General Motors EV1p. 134
9.1.2 The Ford Th!nk Cityp. 137
9.1.3 The Nissan Hyperminip. 139
9.1.4 The Toyota RAV 4 EVp. 140
9.2 Prototype and experimental electric carsp. 141
10 Hybrid electric carsp. 142
10.1 Hybrid system configurationsp. 143
10.2 All-electric hybrid vehiclesp. 144
10.3 Electromechanical hybrid vehiclesp. 145
10.4 Heat engine-electric hybrid vehiclesp. 146
10.4.1 Series hybridsp. 147
10.4.2 Parallel hybridsp. 148
10.5 Hybrid conceptsp. 151
10.6 Production hybrid carsp. 154
10.6.1 The Honda Insightp. 154
10.6.2 The Toyota Priusp. 156
10.6.3 The Nissan Tinop. 163
10.7 Prototype and experimental hybrid carsp. 163
Referencesp. 164
General Referencesp. 164
11 Fuel-cell electric carsp. 165
11.1 Hydrogen fuellingp. 165
11.2 Reformingp. 166
11.3 Infrastructurep. 169
11.4 Safetyp. 170
11.5 Prototype and experimental fuel-cell electric carsp. 173
Referencesp. 173
12 Economics of electric carsp. 174
12.1 Electric car cost comparisonsp. 174
12.2 Cost of batteries and fuel-cellsp. 176
12.3 Hybrid costsp. 177
12.4 Electricity supply and chargingp. 178
12.5 Charging at home and awayp. 179
12.6 Can the electric car compete economically?p. 179
Referencesp. 180
13 Future developmentsp. 181
13.1 Propulsion methodsp. 182
13.2 Energy sourcesp. 182
13.3 Controls and power electronicsp. 186
13.4 Chargingp. 187
13.5 Vehicle design and safetyp. 189
13.6 Hybrid technologyp. 190
13.7 The electric car of 2025p. 190
Referencesp. 193
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